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Ottoman Conquest Of Egypt
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz
Hejaz
as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.[1] The war transformed the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from a realm at the margins of the Islamic world, mainly located in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Balkans, to a huge empire encompassing much of the traditional lands of Islam, including the cities of Mecca, Cairo, Damascus
Damascus
and Aleppo
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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1485–91)
An Ottoman-Mamluk war took place from 1485 to 1491, when the Ottoman Empire invaded the Mamluk Sultanate territories of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Syria. This war was an essential event in the Ottoman struggle for the domination of the Middle-East. After multiple encounters, the war ended in a stalemate and a peace treaty was signed in 1491, restoring the status quo ante bellum
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Arquebus
The arquebus (/ˈɑːrk(w)ɪbʌs/ AR-k(w)ib-us), derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century. Although the term arquebus was applied to many different forms of firearms from the 15th to 17th centuries, it originally referred to "a hand-gun with a hook-like projection or lug on its under surface, useful for steadying it against battlements or other objects when firing."[1] These "hook guns" were in their earliest forms defensive weapons mounted on German city walls in the early 1400s, but by the late 1400s had become handheld firearms.[2] A matchlock mechanism was added around 1475 and it became the first firearm with a trigger. The heavy arquebus, known as the musket, was developed to better penetrate plate armor and appeared in Europe around 1521.[3] A standardized arquebus, the caliver, was introduced in the latter half of the 16th century
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Haram (site)
The Arabic term ḥaram (Arabic: حَرَم‎) has a meaning of "sanctuary" or "holy shrine" in Islam.Contents1 Etymology 2 Protected zone 3 Holy site 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The Arabic language
Arabic language
has two separate words, حرم ḥaram and حرام ḥarām, both derived from the same triliteral Semitic root Ḥ-R-M. Both of these words can mean "forbidden" and/or "sacred" in a general way, but each has also developed some specialized meanings. A third related word derived from the same root, حريم ḥarīm, most directly corresponds to English "harem"
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1485–1491)
An Ottoman-Mamluk war took place from 1485 to 1491, when the Ottoman Empire invaded the Mamluk Sultanate territories of Anatolia and Syria. This war was an essential event in the Ottoman struggle for the domination of the Middle-East. After multiple encounters, the war ended in a stalemate and a peace treaty was signed in 1491, restoring the status quo ante bellum
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Safavid
The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(/ˈsɑːfəvɪd/; Persian: دودمان صفوی‎ Dudmān e Safavi[24]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.[25] The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the Gunpowder Empires.[26] They ruled one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran,[27][28][29][30] and established the Twelver
Twelver
school of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the official religion of the empire,[31] marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
had its origin in the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil
Ardabil
in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
region
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Battle Of Chaldiran
Coordinates: 39°05′19.87″N 44°19′37.19″E / 39.0888528°N 44.3269972°E / 39.0888528; 44.3269972Battle of ChaldiranPart of the Ottoman–Persian WarsBattle of ChaldiranDate 23 August 1514Location Chaldiran, near Khoy, northwestern IranResult Decisive Ottoman victory[1] Political stalemate[2]Territorial changes Ottomans annex Eastern Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
and parts of
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Bilad Al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
(Arabic: بِـلَاد الـشَّـام‎ Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria. It incorporated former Byzantine
Byzantine
territories of the Diocese of the East, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of Syria
Muslim conquest of Syria
in the mid-7th century, which was completed at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Heavy Cavalry
Heavy cavalry
Heavy cavalry
is a class of cavalry[1] whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry
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Musée De L'Armée
Coordinates: 48°51′25″N 2°18′46″E / 48.85694°N 2.31278°E / 48.85694; 2.31278 The Musée de l'Armée
Musée de l'Armée
(Army Museum) is a national military museum of France
France
located at Les Invalides
Les Invalides
in the 7th arrondissement of Paris
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Janissaries
The Janissaries
Janissaries
(Ottoman Turkish: يڭيچرى‎ yeñiçeri [jeniˈt͡ʃeɾi], meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.[3][4] The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I
Murad I
(1362–89).[5] They began as an elite corps of slaves made up of kidnapped young Christian boys who were forcefully converted to Islam,[6] and became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. Unlike typical slaves, they were paid regular salaries. Forbidden to marry or engage in trade, their complete loyalty to the Sultan
Sultan
was expected.[7] By the seventeenth century, due to a dramatic increase in the size of the Ottoman standing army, the corps' initially strict recruitment policy was relaxed
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Diyarbekir
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Kurdish: Amed)[3][4][5] is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey. Situated on the banks of the Tigris
Tigris
River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Province
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Kansuh Al-Ghuri
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri
(Arabic: الأشرف قانصوه الغوري‎) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans. One of the last of the Burji dynasty, he reigned from 1501 to 1516.[1]Contents1 Consolidation of power 2 Portuguese- Mamluk
Mamluk
War 3 Ottoman- Safavid
Safavid
intrusions 4 Fall of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate 5 See also 6 ReferencesConsolidation of power[edit]Venetian embassy to the Mamluk
Mamluk
Governor in Damascus
Damascus
in 1511, during the reign of Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri. Workshop of Giovanni Bellini.The reign began as usual with the removal of all Tuman bay's adherents
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