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Ottoman Caliphate
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
of the Ottoman Caliphate, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman rulers claimed caliphal authority since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362.[1] Later Selim I, through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the defender of the Holy Cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
which further strengthened the Ottoman claim to caliphate in the Muslim world. The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
took place because of a slow erosion of power in relation to Western Europe, and because of the end of the Ottoman state in consequence of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the League of Nations mandate
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Tausug People
The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia. The Tausūg are part of the wider political identity of Muslims
Muslims
of Mindanao, Sulu
Sulu
and Palawan
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Peace Of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia
Westphalia
(German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück
Osnabrück
and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
between the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies on one side, and the Protestant
Protestant
powers (Sweden, Denmark, Dutch, and Holy Roman principalities) and their Catholic (France) Anti-Habsburg allies on the other. The treaties also ended the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch Republic
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Edirne
Edirne
Edirne
,Greek Αδριανούπολις / Adrianoupolis , is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne
Edirne
in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1363 to 1453,[2] before Constantinople
Constantinople
(present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested
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Local Stamp
A local post is a mail service that operates only within a limited geographical area, typically a city or a single transportation route. Historically, some local posts have been operated by governments, while others, known as private local posts have been for-profit companies
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Great Power
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them
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Tanzimat
The Tanzimât (Turkish: [tɑnziˈmɑːt]; Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات‎, translit. Tanẓīmāt, lit. 'reorganization') was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.[1] The Tanzimat
Tanzimat
era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire.[2] It was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Russo-Turkish Wars
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in European history.[1]Contents1 Conflict begins (1568–1827) 2 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1827–1914)2.1 The Balkans 2.2 The Caucasus3 End of conflict (1914–23) 4 List of conflicts 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingConflict begins (1568–1827)[edit] See also: Territorial evolution of Russia, Transformation of the Ottoman Empire, and Ottoman ancien régimeThis section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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