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Osman Yusuf Kenadid
Osman Yusuf Kenadid
Osman Yusuf Kenadid
(Somali: Cusmaan Yuusuf Keenadiid; Arabic: عثمان يوسف كينايديض‎), was a Somali poet, writer, teacher and ruler. He created the Osmanya alphabet
Osmanya alphabet
for writing Somali.Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Kenadid grew up in the town of Galkayo, situated in north-central present-day Somalia. He served as a leader in the Majeerteen
Majeerteen
Sultanate of Hobyo and was the son of the polity's founder, Sultan
Sultan
Yusuf Ali Kenadid. Also a writer, Kenadid published many works on various subjects related to Somali history and science, including textbooks on the Somali language, astronomy, geography and Somali philosophy
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Alphabet
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme, or semantic unit). The Proto-Canaanite script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and possibly Brahmic.[1][2] Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Mohamed Siad Barre
Mohamed Siad Barre
Siad Barre
(Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre; Arabic: محمد سياد بري‎; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995[3]) was the President of the Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
from 1969 to 1991. During his rule, he styled himself as Jaalle Siyaad ("Comrade Siad").[note 1][citation needed] The Barre-led military junta that came to power after a coup d'état in 1969 said it would adapt scientific socialism to the needs of Somalia. Volunteer labour harvested and planted crops and built roads, hospitals and universities. Almost all industry, banks and businesses were nationalised, and cooperative farms were promoted. A new writing system for the Somali language
Somali language
was also adopted
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Somali Youth League
The Somali Youth League
Somali Youth League
(SYL) (Somali: Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed, Arabic: عصبة الشبيبة الصومالية‎), initially known as the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was the first political party in Somalia. It played a key role in the nation's road to independence during the 1950s and 1960s.Contents1 History 2 Political leaders2.1 Founders and leaders 2.2 Notable members3 Somali Youth Day 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] During the Second World War, Britain occupied Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
and militarily administered the territory from 1941 to 1950. Faced with growing Italian political pressure inimical to continued British tenure and Somali aspirations for independence, the Somalis and the British came to see each other as allies
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
(/ˌmɔːɡəˈdiːʃuː/;[2][3] Somali: Muqdisho Somali pronunciation: [mʉqdɪʃɔ];[stress and tone?] Arabic: مقديشو‎ IPA: [maqadiːʃuː]),[stress?] known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banaadir
Banaadir
region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for millennia.[4] As of 2017[update], it had a population of 2,425,000 residents.[1] Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu
Mogadishu
area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherers. These were later joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies
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Ruler (potentate)
If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a definition already, change this tag to TWCleanup2 or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing the text on this page with Wi . If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
does not have the definition yet, consider moving the whole article to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing this tag with the template Copy to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
. This template will no longer automatically categorize articles as candidates to move to Wiktionary.A potentate (from the Latin potens, "powerful') is a person with potent, sometimes supreme, power
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Orthography
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation. Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops in a more organic way
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Geography
Geography
Geography
(from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description")[1] is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets.[2] The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes
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Wadaad's Writing
Wadaad writing, also known as wadaad Arabic, is the traditional Somali adaptation of written Arabic,[1] as well as the Arabic script
Arabic script
as historically used to transcribe the Somali language.[2] Originally, it referred to an ungrammatical Arabic featuring some words in Somali, with the proportion of Somali vocabulary terms varying depending on the context.[3] Alongside standard Arabic, wadaad writing was used by Somali religious men (wadaado) to record xeer (customary law) petitions and to write qasidas.[1][4] It was also used by merchants for business and letter writing.[4] Over the years, various Somali scholars improved and altered the use of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for conveying Somali
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Borama Alphabet
The Borama alphabet
Borama alphabet
(Borama: ) or more generally known as the Gadabuursi
Gadabuursi
script,[1] is a writing script for the Somali language. It was devised around 1933 by Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur of the Gadabuursi clan.[2]Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]A qasida in the Borama script.Though not as widely known as Osmanya, the other major orthography for transcribing Somali, Borama has produced a notable body of literature mainly consisting of qasidas.[3] A quite accurate phonetic writing system,[2] the Borama script was principally used by Nuur and his circle of associates in his native city of Borama.[1][2] See also[edit]Kaddare Osmanya Somali orthographyNotes[edit]^ a b Somali alphabets, pronunciation and language ^ a b c David D. Laitin (1 May 1977). Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience. University of Chicago Press
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Sultanate Of Hobyo
The Sultanate of Hobyo
Hobyo
(Somali: Saldanadda Hobyo, Arabic: سلطنة هوبيو‎), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia,[1] was a 19th-century Somali kingdom in present-day northeastern and central Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia
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Galkayo
Galkayo
Galkayo
(Somali: Gaalkacyo, Arabic: جالكعيو‎), also known as Gallacaio or Rocca Littorio,[2] is the capital of the north-central Mudug
Mudug
region of Somalia.[3] The city of Galkayo
Galkayo
is divided into two administrative areas separated by a distinct boundary, with 3 of the 4 districts governed by the Puntland
Puntland
State and one southern district governed by Galmudug
Galmudug
state.[4] Geographically Galkayo
Galkayo
town is divided into four main neighborhoods. Puntland
Puntland
state controls neighborhoods of Garsoor, Horumar and Israac while Galmudug
Galmudug
state controls Wadajir neighborhood.[5][6] Following independence, Galkayo
Galkayo
was made the center of the Galkayo District
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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