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Oskar Van Deventer
OSKAR VAN DEVENTER is a Dutch puzzle maker. He prototypes puzzles using 3D Printing
3D Printing
. Many of his combination puzzles are in mass production by Uwe Mèffert and Witeden . His 17x17x17 "Over the Top Cube" Rubik\'s cube -style puzzle is the largest of its kind Oskar van Deventer has also designed puzzles for Hanayama . He is the 2012 Guinness World Record holder for his 17x17x17 cube (which has since been beaten by a 22x22x22 cube ). His work combines mathematics, physics, and design, and he collaborates at academic institutions. In addition to being a puzzle maker, Oskar is a research scientist in the area of media networking and holds a Ph.D. in optics. He has over 100 publications, over 50 patents applications, and hundreds of standardization contributions
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Dodecahedron
In geometry , a DODECAHEDRON (Greek δωδεκάεδρον, from δώδεκα dōdeka "twelve" + ἕδρα hédra "base", "seat" or "face") is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the regular dodecahedron , which is a Platonic solid
Platonic solid
. There are also three regular star dodecahedra , which are constructed as stellations of the convex form. All of these have icosahedral symmetry , order 120. The pyritohedron is an irregular pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one but pyritohedral symmetry while the tetartoid has tetrahedral symmetry . The rhombic dodecahedron , seen as a limiting case of the pyritohedron, has octahedral symmetry . The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra, are space-filling . There are a large number of other dodecahedra
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Icosahedron
In geometry , an ICOSAHEDRON (/ˌaɪkɒsəˈhiːdrən, -kə-, -koʊ-/ or /aɪˌkɒsəˈhiːdrən/ ) is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι (eíkosi), meaning 'twenty', and ἕδρα (hédra), meaning 'seat'. The plural can be either "icosahedra" (/-drə/ ) or "icosahedrons". There are many kinds of icosahedra, with some being more symmetrical than others. The best known is the Platonic , convex regular icosahedron
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Octahedron
In geometry , an OCTAHEDRON (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the REGULAR octahedron, a Platonic solid
Platonic solid
composed of eight equilateral triangles , four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube . It is a rectified tetrahedron . It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations. It is also a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope . A regular octahedron is a 3-ball in the Manhattan (ℓ1) metric
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3D Printing
3D PRINTING, also known as ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM), refers to processes used to create a three-dimensional object in which layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File
File
(AMF) file. STL is one of the most common file types that 3D printers can read. Thus, unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing
3D printing
or AM builds a three-dimensional object from computer-aided design (CAD) model or AMF file by successively adding material layer by layer. The term "3D printing" originally referred to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer
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Tetrahedron
In geometry , a TETRAHEDRON (plural: TETRAHEDRA or TETRAHEDRONS), also known as a TRIANGULAR PYRAMID, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces , six straight edges , and four vertex corners . The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra and the only one that has fewer than 5 faces. The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex , and may thus also be called a 3-SIMPLEX. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid , which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base), so a tetrahedron is also known as a "triangular pyramid". Like all convex polyhedra , a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. It has two such nets
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Great Dodecahedron
In geometry , the GREAT DODECAHEDRON is a Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron , with Schläfli symbol {5,5/2} and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram of . It is one of four nonconvex regular polyhedra . It is composed of 12 pentagonal faces (six pairs of parallel pentagons), with five pentagons meeting at each vertex, intersecting each other making a pentagrammic path. The discovery of the great dodecahedron is sometimes credited to Louis Poinsot in 1810, though there is a drawing of something very similar to a great dodecahedron in the 1568 book Perspectiva Corporum Regularium by Wenzel Jamnitzer
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Panagiotis Verdes
PANAGIOTIS VERDES is the Greek inventor of the 6x6x6 , 7x7x7 , 8x8x8 and 9x9x9 Twisty Puzzles . He has also worked on new designs of every Twisty Puzzle from 2x2x2 to 11x11x11. INVENTIONS The V-Cube 6 in solved state The V-Cube 7 in solved state Prior to Verdes's invention, the 6x6x6 cube was thought to be impossible due to geometry constraints. Verdes's invention uses a completely different mechanism than the smaller Rubik's cubes; his mechanism is based on concentric, right-angle conical surfaces whose axes of rotation coincide with the semi-axes of the cube. The patents for the cubes were awarded in 2004, and mass-production began in 2008. Verdes's mechanism allows cubes of up to size 11x11x11, as larger cubes have geometrical constraints. REFERENCES * ^ A B C Slocum, Jerry (2009). The Cube: The Ultimate Guide to the World's Bestselling Puzzle. United States: Black Dog & Leventhal
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Cuboid
In geometry , a CUBOID is a convex polyhedron bounded by six quadrilateral faces, whose polyhedral graph is the same as that of a cube . While mathematical literature refers to any such polyhedron as a cuboid, other sources use "cuboid" to refer to a shape of this type in which each of the faces is a rectangle (and so each pair of adjacent faces meets in a right angle ); this more restrictive type of cuboid is also known as a RECTANGULAR CUBOID, RIGHT CUBOID, RECTANGULAR BOX, RECTANGULAR HEXAHEDRON , RIGHT RECTANGULAR PRISM, or RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED . CONTENTS * 1 General cuboids * 2 Rectangular cuboid * 2.1 Nets * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GENERAL CUBOIDSBy Euler\'s formula the numbers of faces F, of vertices V, and of edges E of any convex polyhedron are related by the formula F + V = E + 2. In the case of a cuboid this gives 6 + 8 = 12 + 2; that is, like a cube, a cuboid has 6 faces , 8 vertices , and 12 edges
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Truncated Icosahedron
In geometry , the TRUNCATED ICOSAHEDRON is an Archimedean solid
Archimedean solid
, one of 13 convex isogonal nonprismatic solids whose faces are two or more types of regular polygons . It has 12 regular pentagonal faces, 20 regular hexagonal faces, 60 vertices and 90 edges. It is the Goldberg polyhedron
Goldberg polyhedron
GPV(1,1) or {5+,3}1,1, containing pentagonal and hexagonal faces. This geometry is associated with footballs (soccer balls) typically patterned with white hexagons and black pentagons. Geodesic domes such as those whose architecture Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
pioneered are often based on this structure. It also corresponds to the geometry of the fullerene C60 ("buckyball") molecule. It is used in the cell-transitive hyperbolic space-filling tessellation, the bitruncated order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb
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Pyramorphix
The PYRAMORPHIX (/ˌpɪrəˈmɔːrfɪks/ , often misspelt Pyramorphinx) is a tetrahedral puzzle similar to the Rubik\'s Cube . It has a total of 8 movable pieces to rearrange, compared to the 20 of the Rubik's Cube. Though it looks like a simpler version of the Pyraminx , it is an edge-turning puzzle with the mechanism identical to that of the Pocket Cube . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Number of combinations * 3 Master Pyramorphix
Pyramorphix
* 3.1 Solutions * 3.2 Number of combinations * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONAt first glance, the Pyramorphix
Pyramorphix
appears to be a trivial puzzle. It resembles the Pyraminx, and its appearance would suggest that only the four corners could be rotated
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BrainTwist
The HOBERMAN BRAINTWIST is a 3D mechanical puzzle designed and marketed by Chuck Hoberman 's company Hoberman Designs. The puzzle is in the same family as the Rubik\'s Cube and other puzzles that involve manipulating and scrambling colored face elements with the goal of returning them to their original order from a randomized state, commonly called twisty puzzles . This puzzle is unique in that in addition to solving one set of tetrahedral faces the puzzle can be flipped inside-out through an intermediate stellated shape to reveal another (dual) tetrahedron with a set of 4 different colored faces. The puzzle also has an alternate solution in which the apices are each a uniform color. CONTENTS * 1 Basic elements * 2 Manipulation * 3 Solutions * 4 External links BASIC ELEMENTSThe BrainTwist
BrainTwist
consists of 12 colored triangular elements each with a detent to aid in aligning the apices of the puzzle after rotating them
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Impossiball
The IMPOSSIBALL is a rounded icosahedral puzzle similar to the Rubik\'s Cube . It has a total of 20 movable pieces to rearrange, same as the Rubik's Cube, but all of the Impossiball's pieces are corners, like the Pocket Cube . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Solutions * 4 Number of combinations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYWilliam O. Gustafson applied for a patent for the Impossiball
Impossiball
design in 1981 and it was issued in 1984. Uwe Mèffert eventually bought the rights to some of the patents and continues to sell it in his puzzle shop under the Impossiball
Impossiball
moniker. DESCRIPTIONThe Impossiball
Impossiball
is made in the shape of an icosahedron that has been rounded out to a sphere, and has 20 pieces, all of them corners
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Pyraminx
The PYRAMINX (/ˈpɪrəmɪŋks/ ) is a regular tetrahedron puzzle in the style of Rubik\'s Cube . It was made and patented by Uwe Mèffert after the original 3 layered Rubik's Cube by Erno Rubik , and introduced by Tomy Toys of Japan (then the 3rd largest toy company in the world) in 1981. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Optimal solutions * 3 Records * 4 Methods * 5 Variations * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DESCRIPTION Pyraminx
Pyraminx
in the middle of a twist The Pyraminx