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Orsini
Orsini is a surname of Italian origin, ultimately derived from Latin ursinus ("bearlike") and originating as an epithet or sobriquet describing the name-bearer's purported strength
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Epithet
An epithet (from Greek: ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added"[1]) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Surname
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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Sobriquet
A sobriquet (/ˈsoʊbrɪkeɪ/ SOH-bri-kay) is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another. Distinct from a pseudonym, it usually is a familiar name used in place of a real name without the need of explanation, often becoming more familiar than the original name. Examples are Emiye Menelik, a name of Emperor Menelik II
Menelik II
of Ethiopia, who was popularly and affectionately recognized for his kindness ('emiye' means mother in Amharic); Genghis Khan, who now is rarely recognized by his original name, Temüjin; and Mohandas Gandhi, who is better known as Mahatma
Mahatma
Gandhi
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Pope Leo X
Pope
Pope
Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope
Pope
from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.[1] The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope
Pope
Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances. In protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice that was soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses, following his visit to Rome
Rome
in 1511
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Given Name
A given name (also known as a first name, forename) is a part of a person's personal name.[1] It identifies a specific person, and differentiates that person from the other members of a group (typically a family or clan) who have a common surname. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person, normally to a child by his or her parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian
Christian
name, a first name which historically was given at baptism, is now also typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are often used in a familiar and friendly manner.[1] In more formal situations, a person's surname is more commonly used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname
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Giordano Orsini (died 1173)
Jordan (Italian: Giordano Bobone Orsini; died after 1154) was a Carthusian monk, created Cardinal Deacon by Pope Lucius II in December 1144 and then Cardinal Priest of Santa Susanna by Eugene III on 21 December 1145.[1] He is often referred to as a member of the Roman family of the Orsini, but more recent research concludes that he was probably a Frenchman.[2] He served as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church under Eugene III (attested 8 March 1147 until 1151) and subscribed the papal bulls between 9 January 1145 and 11 June 1154.[1] He was described by John of Salisbury as mean and parsimonious and dressing in filthy rags as a gesture of austerity
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Pope Benedict XIII
Pope
Pope
Benedict XIII (Latin: Benedictus XIII; 2 February 1649 – 21 February 1730), born Pietro Francesco Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
from 29 May 1724 to his death in 1730.[2] A Dominican friar, Orsini focused on his religious responsibilities as bishop rather than on papal administration. Orsini's lack of political expertise led him to increasingly rely on an unscrupulous secretary (Cardinal Niccolò Coscia) whose financial abuses ruined the papal treasury, causing great damage to the Church in Rome. In the process towards sainthood, his cause for canonization opened in 1755, but it was soon closed. It was re-opened on 21 February 1931, but it was closed once again in 1940. It was opened once more on 17 January 2004, with the official process commencing in 2012 and concluding later in 2017
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Valentino Orsini
Valentino Orsini (19 January 1927 in Pisa
Pisa
– 26 January 2001 in Cerveteri) was an Italian film director. After his first interests to arts (he had been sculptor, stage designer, cinema critic, cineclub animator) in his hometown, in 1954 Valentino Orsini directed with the brothers Paolo and Vittorio Taviani (born in the near small city of San Miniato) the documentary San Miniato: luglio 1944. After other documentaries, most with Taviani brothers, he realized his first fiction films in 1962 and in 1963, both with the two brothers. After other documentaries Orsini directed his first fiction film alone, I dannati della terra in 1969
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Pope Nicholas III
Pope
Pope
Nicholas III (Latin: Nicolaus III; c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini,[1] was Pope
Pope
from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280. He was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight popes, been made Cardinal-Deacon
Cardinal-Deacon
of St
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Alessandro Orsini (cardinal)
Alessandro Orsini (1592–1626) was an Italian Cardinal. He was a patron of Galileo, who dedicated his 1616 work on the tides to him,[1] and requested that he pass it on to Pope Paul V.[2] Orsini belonged to the ducal family of Bracciano. He was brought up at the court of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany, and in 1615 was created a cardinal by Paul V. As papal legate to Ravenna under Pope Gregory XV, he distinguished himself in 1621 by his charity on the occasion of the outbreak of an epidemic. Upon his return to Rome, he devoted himself to religion and to the practice of an austere asceticism. He asked permission of the pope to resign the cardinalate and to enter the Jesuit Order, but this was refused.[3] Notes[edit]^ The Galileo Project Chronology Galileo Timeline ^ Galileo ^ "Orsini". Catholic Encyclopedia
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Paolo Giordano Orsini (other)
Paolo Giordano Orsini may refer to two members of the Italian Orsini family:Paolo Giordano I Orsini (1541 - 1585), first duke of Bracciano Paolo Giordano II Orsini of the Orsini familyThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Rinaldo Orsini
Rinaldo Orsini (died 1450) was an Italian condottiero, a member of the Orsini family. He was the son of Jacopo Orsini. In 1426 he fought for the Pope against the Colonna family. In 1442 he was hired by the Republic of Siena, and in 1445 he became lord of Piombino and Isola d'Elba through his marriage with Caterina Appiani. In 1447, attacked by Alfonso V of Aragon, King of Naples, he defended it with the help of a Florentine army. He was therefore named captain of the Republic of Florence and, in 1450, moved against Alfonso's troops which were besieging Castiglione della Pescaia, but without effect. He died the same year by plague. References[edit]Sansovino, F. (1565). Historia di Casa Orsini
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Napoleone Orsini
Napoleone Orsini (c. 1420 – September 1480) was an Italian condottiero. The son of Orso Orsini of Bracciano, he fought for Pope Eugene IV against Francesco Sforza in 1443. Later, in the 1450s, he flanked Ferdinand of Aragon in the struggle between the Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Milan. Subsequently Orsini fought against the rival baronal families of the Colonna and the Anguillara in the Lazio. In 1461 as papal commander for Pope Pius II, he defeated Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, who was moving to enter the Kingdom of Naples, at Mondolfo, in the Abruzzo. The following year he was appointe commander-in-chief of the Papal Army and warred against Roberto Malatesta, lord of Rimini, being wounded in the course of the campaign. Orsini did not take part in any relevant military feat thenceforth. References[edit]Litta, Pietro (1834). Famiglie celebri italiane. Milan.  Sansovino, F. (1565). Historia di Casa Orsini
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