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Ornithology
Ornithology
Ornithology
is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. The word "ornithology" derives from the ancient Greek ὄρνις ornis ("bird") and λόγος logos ("rationale" or "explanation"). Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds.[1] Most marked among these is the extent of studies undertaken by amateurs working within the parameters of strict scientific methodology. The science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution, behaviour and ecology such as the defin
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Topographia Hiberniae
Topographia Hibernica
Topographia Hibernica
( Latin
Latin
for Topography of Ireland), also known as Topographia Hiberniae, is an account of the landscape and people of Ireland written by Gerald of Wales
Gerald of Wales
around 1188, soon after the Norman invasion of Ireland. It was the longest and most influential work on Ireland circulating in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and its direct influence endured into the early modern period.Contents1 Background 2 Text2.1 Quotations3 Reception 4 Influence 5 Criticism 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] The author was born about 1146 within the aristocratic FitzGerald/de Barri family in the castle of Manorbeer in Wales with the birth name of Gerald de Barri. Gerald made his first visit to Ireland in 1183 and returned in 1185
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Waterbird
The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird (not to be confused with wading birds) is used to refer to birds that live on or around water. Some definitions apply the term especially to birds in freshwater habitats, though others make no distinction from birds that inhabit marine environments. In addition, some water birds are more terrestrial or aquatic than others, and their adaptations will vary depending on their environment. These adaptations include webbed feet, bills and legs adapted to feed in water, and the ability to dive from the surface or the air to catch prey in water.Play mediaVideo from Danube river in Vienna (2014)The term aquatic bird is sometimes also used in this context. A related term that has a narrower meaning is waterfowl. Some birds of prey, such as ospreys and sea eagles, take prey from water but are not considered water birds
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Oronsay, Inner Hebrides
Oronsay (Scottish Gaelic: Orasaigh, pronounced [ˈɔɾəs̪aj]), also sometimes spelt and pronounced Oransay by the local community, is a small tidal island south of Colonsay
Colonsay
in the Scottish Inner Hebrides with an area of 543 hectares (1,340 acres).[3][note 1] The island rises to a height of 93m (305 feet) at Beinn Orasaigh and is linked to Colonsay
Colonsay
by a tidal causeway (called An Traigh (The Strand)) consisting of sands and mud flats. In the 2001 census Oronsay was recorded as having a population of five people, who lived at the farm adjacent to Oronsay Priory. In 2011 the population had risen to eight.[5] The island has no facilities for visitors, and is dependent upon its tidal access to and from Colonsay
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Onomatopoeic
An onomatopoeia (/ˌɒnəˌmætəˈpiːə, -ˌmɑː-/ ( listen);[1][2] from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία;[3] ὄνομα for "name"[4] and ποιέω for "I make",[5] adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes. As an uncountable noun, onomatopoeia refers to the property of such words
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Xenophon
Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.[1] As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), he also participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II of Persia
and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history
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Ostrich
The ostrich or common ostrich ( Struthio
Struthio
camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family. In 2014, the Somali ostrich
Somali ostrich
( Struthio
Struthio
molybdophanes) was recognized as a distinct species.[2][3] The common ostrich shares the order Struthioniformes
Struthioniformes
with the kiwis, emus, rheas, and cassowaries
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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Vedas
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Stone Age
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Stone Age
Stone Age
was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface
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Brood Parasite
Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young. The strategy appears among birds, insects and some fish. The brood parasite manipulates a host, either of the same or of another species, to raise its young as if it were its own, using brood mimicry, for example by having eggs that resemble the host's (egg mimicry). Brood parasitism relieves the parasitic parents from the investment of rearing young or building nests for the young, enabling them to spend more time on other activities such as foraging and producing further offspring
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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History Of Animals
History of Animals
History of Animals
(Greek: Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Latin: Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens. It was written in the fourth century BC; Aristotle
Aristotle
died in 322 BC. Generally seen as a pioneering work of zoology, Aristotle
Aristotle
frames his text by explaining that he is investigating the what (the existing facts about animals) prior to establishing the why (the causes of these characteristics). The book is thus an attempt to apply philosophy to part of the natural world. Throughout the work, Aristotle
Aristotle
seeks to identify differences, both between individuals and between groups
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Hibernated
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. Although traditionally reserved for "deep" hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic suppression rather than absolute body temperature decline. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum and utilize similar mechanisms.[1][2] The equivalent during the summer months is aestivation. Some reptile species (ectotherms) are said to brumate, but possible similarities between brumation and hibernation are not firmly established
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