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Orléanist
The Orléanists were a French right-wing (except for 1814–1830) faction which arose out of the French Revolution
French Revolution
as opposed to Legitimists. It governed France
France
1830–1848 in the July Monarchy
Monarchy
of king Louis Philippe I. It is generally seen as a transitional period dominated by the conservative Orléanist
Orléanist
doctrine in economic and foreign policies. The chief leaders included Prime Minister François Guizot
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5 October 1910 Revolution
Republican victoryAbolition of the monarchy and proclamation of the republic. King Manuel II is exiled and flees to Britain.Belligerents Kingdom of Portugal Portuguese republicansCommanders and leaders King Manuel II Teixeira de Sousa Paiva Couceiro Teófilo Braga Afonso Costa Manuel de Arriaga José RelvasStrengthAbout 7,000 men About 2,000 revolutionaries 3 cruisersCasualties and lossesAt least 37 dead and dozens wounded, with at least 14 of them dying in the following days.The establishment of the Portuguese Republic was the result of a coup d'état organised by the Portuguese Republican Party which, on 5 October 1910, deposed the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal
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Tetrarchy
The term "tetrarchy" (from the Greek: τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four [people]")[a] describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Diocletian
Diocletian
in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
and the recovery of the Roman Empire. This tetrarchy lasted until c. 313, when mutually destructive conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius
Licinius
in control of the eastern half.Contents1 Terminology 2 Creation 3 Regions and capitals 4 Public image 5 Military successes 6 Demise 7 Timeline7.1 286–293 7.2 293–305 7.3 305–306 7.4 306–307 7.5 307–313 7.6 313–324 7.7 3248 Others8.1 1
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Elective Monarchy
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance. The manner of election, the nature of candidate qualifications, and the electors vary from case to case
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Emirate
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Islamic monarch styled emir. It also means principality.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 As monarchies 3 As provinces 4 List of present Emirates 5 List of former and integrated emirates5.1 Europe5.1.1 Iberia 5.1.2 Mediterranean region 5.1.3 Caucasus5.2 Asia5.2.1 Near East 5.2.2 Arabia 5.2.3 Central Asia and Indian subcontinent5.3 Africa5.3.1 North Africa 5.3.2 Nigeria6 See also 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Etymologically emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة‎ imārah, plural: إمارات imārāt) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any emir (prince, commander, governor etc.). As monarchies[edit] The United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister
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Ethnarch
Ethnarch, pronounced /ˈɛθnɑːrk/, the anglicized form of ethnarches (Greek: ἐθνάρχης), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom. The word is derived from the Greek words ἔθνος (ethnos, "tribe/nation") and ἄρχων (archon, "leader/ruler")
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Federal Monarchy
A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.Contents1 As a term in political science 2 Federal monarchies2.1 Historically 2.2 Currently3 List of federal monarchies 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksAs a term in political science[edit] The term was introduced into English political and historical discourse by Edward Augustus Freeman, in his History of Federal Government (1863)
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Hereditary Monarchy
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family. It represents an institutionalised form of nepotism.[1] It is historically the most common type of monarchy and remains the dominant form in extant monarchies. It has the advantages of continuity of the concentration of power and wealth and predictability of who one can expect to control the means of governance and patronage
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Legalism (Chinese Philosophy)
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t eFajiia (Chinese: 法家; pinyin: Fǎjiā)[2] or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.[3] Roughly meaning "house of Fa" (administrative "methods" or "standards"),[4] the "school" (term) represents some several branches of realistic statesmen[5] or "men of methods" (fashu zishi)[6] foundational for the traditional Chinese bureaucratic empire.[7] Compared with Machiavelli,[8] it has often been considered in the Western world as akin to the Realpolitikal thought of
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Non-sovereign Monarchy
A non-sovereign monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity (whether a geographic territory or an ethnic group), and the polity itself, are subject to a temporal authority higher than their own
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Popular Monarchy
Popular monarchy
Popular monarchy
is a term used by Kingsley Martin (1936) for royal titles referring to a people rather than a territory.[1] This was the norm in classical antiquity and throughout much of the Middle Ages, and such titles were retained in some of the monarchies of 19th- and 20th-century Europe. During the
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Universal Monarchy
A Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is a concept and a political situation where one monarchy is deemed to have either sole rule over everywhere (or at least the predominant part of a geopolitical area or areas) or to have a special supremacy over all other states (or at least all the states in a geopolitical area or areas).Contents1 Concept 2 History2.1 Europe 2.2 Asia3 ReferencesConcept[edit] Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is differentiated from ordinary monarchy in that a Universal Monarchy
Monarchy
is beholden to no other state and asserts a degree of total sovereignty over an area, or predominance over other states. The concept has arisen in Europe
Europe
and Asia. The concept is linked to that of Empire, but implies more than simply possessing imperium. The Latin phrase Dominus Mundi, Lord of the World, encapsulates the concept
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Diarchy
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double",[1] and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled")[2][a] or duumvirate (from Latin
Latin
duumvirātus, "the office of the two men")[4][b] is a form of government characterized by corule, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force. The leaders of such a system are usually known as corulers.[5] Historically, diarchy particularly referred to the system of shared rule in British India[2] established by the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 which devolved some powers to local councils which had included native Indian representation since 1892. 'Duumvirate' principally referred to the offices of the various duumvirs established by the Roman Republic.[4] Both, along with less common synonyms such as biarchy[6] and tandemocracy,[7][c] are now used more generally to refer to any system of joint rule or office
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Magna Carta
Magna Carta
Magna Carta
Libertatum ( Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
for "the Great Charter
Charter
of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta
Magna Carta
(also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"),[a] is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.[b] First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons' War
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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