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Oriya Language
ODIA (/əˈdiːə/ ) or ORIYA (/ɒˈriːə/ ; both renderings of Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଆ _ oḍiā_ (help ·info )), is a language spoken by 3.2% of India 's population. It is an Indo-Aryan language that is spoken mostly in eastern India , with around 40 million native speakers, as of the year 2016, from the state of Odisha , from adjoining regions of its neighboring states and by the largely migrated Odia population across India. It is the predominant language of the Indian state of Odisha, where native speakers make up 80% of the population, and also is spoken in parts of West Bengal , Jharkhand , Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh . Odia is one of the many official languages of India ; it is the official language of Odisha and the second official language of Jharkhand . The language is also spoken by a sizeable population of at least 10 million people in Chhattisgarh. Odia is the sixth Indian language to be designated a Classical Language in India on the basis of having a long literary history and not having borrowed extensively from other languages. The earliest known inscription in Odia dates back to the 10th century AD
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Odisha
ODISHA ( /əˈdɪsə/ (_ listen ) ) (formerly ORISSA) (/ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/ ; is one of the 29 states of India , located in the eastern coast. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Malkangiri . It is the 9th largest state by area , and the 11th largest by population . It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as Oriya_) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census. The ancient kingdom of Kalinga , which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War , coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India , and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day . The region is also known as UTKALA and is mentioned in India's national anthem, " Jana Gana Mana ". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c
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Odia People
The ODIA, known classically by various names (Oriya, Odri, Utkaliya, Kalingi,ଓଡ଼ିଆ) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the East Indian state of Odisha and have the Odia language as their mother tongue . They constitute a majority in the eastern coastal state of Odisha , with minority populations in Andhra Pradesh , West Bengal , Germany , and Australia. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Language and literature * 5 Position of women in Odia society * 6 Culture * 6.1 Religion * 6.2 Architecture * 6.3 Art * 6.4 Entertainment * 6.5 Music and dance * 6.6 Cuisine * 6.7 Festivals * 7 Notable people * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe earliest Odias were called Odra or Kalingas. Utkals was a later name. The word Odia has mentions in epics like the Mahabharata . The Odrakas are mentioned as one of the peoples that fought in the Mahabharata, a testimony to their Aryan roots. Pali literature calls them Oddakas. Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder also refer to the Oretas who inhabit India's eastern coast. The modern term Odia dates from the 15th century when it was used by the medieval Muslim chroniclers and adopted by the Gajapati king. HISTORYThe Odias are distinguished by their ethnocultural customs as well as the use of the Odia language
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L2 Speakers
A person's SECOND LANGUAGE or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages , are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas . More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second language acquisition , (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines _first language_ for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition . This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption ), to a new language environment
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus (Ossetian ) and the Balkans (Romani/Gypsy ) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli ) and Assam (Assamese ), and south to the Maldives (Maldivian ). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch
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Indo-Aryan Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age _Pontic Steppe_ * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna _Northern/Eastern Steppe_ *
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List Of Eastern Indo-Aryan Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Baden * Middle Dnieper ------------------------- Bronze Age Pontic Steppe * Chariot * Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna Northern/Eastern Steppe * Abashevo culture * Andronovo * Sintashta Europe * Beaker * Globular Amphora culture * Corded ware * Tumulus * Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age * Terramare * Trzciniec South-Asia * BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave ------------------------- Iron Age Steppe * Chernoles Europe * Thraco-Cimmerian * Hallstatt * Jastorf Caucasus * Colchian India * Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware Peoples and societies Bronze Age * Anatolians * Armenians * Mycenaean Greeks * Indo-Iranians Iron Age Indo-Aryans * Indo-Aryans Iranians* Iranians * Scythians * Persians * Medes Europe* Celts * Gauls * Celtiberians
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Odia Languages
The ODIA LANGUAGES are language varieties closer to the Odia language than to others. They are: * Odia * Sambalpuri * Bodo Parja * Kupia * Reli REFERENCES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Macro-Oriya". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. This Indo-European languages -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Odia_dialects_and_varieties additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Odia Alphabet
The ODIA SCRIPT (Odia : ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as ORIYA SCRIPT, is used to write the Odia language . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Alphabet
Alphabet
* 2.1 All characters * 2.2 Independent vowels * 2.3 Consonants * 2.4 Structured consonants * 2.5 Unstructured consonants * 2.6 Dependent vowels * 3 Consonant ligatures * 3.1 Special
Special
forms * 4 Ambiguities * 5 Numerals * 6 Comparison of Odia script with its neighbours * 6.1 Vowel
Vowel
signs * 6.2 Consonant signs * 6.3 Vowel
Vowel
diacritics * 7 Unicode * 8 Footnotes * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY Kharabela's inscription in Kalinga script and Odia language
Odia language
at Hatigumpha, Khandagiri , Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
The Odia script is developed from the Kalinga alphabet , one of the many descendants of the Brahmi script of ancient India
India
. The earliest known inscription in the Odia language
Odia language
, in the Kalinga script, dates from 1051. The script has undergone several phases
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Odia Braille
ODIA BRAILLE is one of the Bharati braille alphabets. Apart from using Hindi æ for Odia ẏ, it conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets. ALPHABETThe alphabet is as follows. Vowel letters are used rather than diacritics, and they occur after consonants in their spoken order. For orthographic conventions, see Bharati Braille . PRINT ଅ ଆ ଇ ଈ ଉ ଊ ଏ ଐ ଓ ଔ ISO A ā I ī U ū E AI O AU BRAILLE PRINT ଋ ୠ ଌ ୡ ISO R̥ R̥̄ L̥ L̥̄ BRAILLE PRINT କ ଖ ଗ ଘ ଙ ISO K KH G GH ṅ BRAILLE PRINT ଚ ଛ ଜ ଝ ଞ ISO C CH J JH ñ BRAILLE PRINT ଟ ଠ ଡ ଢ ଡ଼ ଢ଼ ଣ ISO ṭ ṭH ḍ ḍH ṛ ṛH ṇ BRAILLE PRINT ତ ଥ ଦ ଧ ନ ISO T TH D DH N BRAILLE PRINT ପ ଫ ବ ଭ ମ ISO P PH B BH M BRAILLE PRINT ଯ ୟ ର ଳ ଲ ୱ/ଵ ISO Y ẏ R L ḷ V BRAILLE PRINT ଶ ଷ ସ ହ ISO ś ṣ S H BRAILLEThere are two pre-formed conjuncts, PRINT କ୍ଷ ଜ୍ଞ ISO Kṣ Jñ BRAILLEand the full range of syllable codas, PRINT କ୍ କଂ କଃ କଁ କଽ ISO HALANT ANUSVARA VISARGA CANDRABINDU AVAGRAHA BRAILLEPUNCTUATIONSee Bharati Braille#Punctuation
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste , emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires ; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia
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Jharkhand
JHARKHAND (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. Dhanbad is the largest industrial city in the state. Jharkhand accounts for 40% of the mineral resources of India but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1 per cent of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6 per cent of the children under five years of age are malnourished. The State is primarily a rural state as only 24 percent of the population resides in cities
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ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code_, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes . Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international, and formal, shorthand for indicating languages
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