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Original IBM ThinkPad
ORIGINALITY is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions , clones, forgeries , or derivative works . An original work is one not received from others nor one copied from or based upon the work of others.. It is a work created with a unique style and substance. The term "originality" is often applied as a compliment to the creativity of artists , writers , and thinkers . The idea of originality as we know it was invented by Romanticism , with a notion that is often called romantic originality . The concept of originality is culturally contingent. It became an ideal in Western culture starting from the 18th century. In contrast, at the time of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
it was common to appreciate more the similarity with an admired classical work, and Shakespeare
Shakespeare
himself avoided "unnecessary invention". CONTENTS * 1 Originality in law * 2 Originality in science * 3 Original idea * 4 Original recording * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINALITY IN LAWIn law, originality has become an important legal concept with respect to intellectual property , where creativity and invention have manifest as copyrightable works. In the patent law of the United States and most other countries, only original inventions are subject to protection
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Replica
A REPLICA is an exact reproduction , such as of a painting , as it was executed by the original artist or a copy or reproduction, especially one on a scale smaller than the original. A replica is a copying closely resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps. It can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum . Sometimes the original never existed. Replicas and reproductions can be related to any form of licensing an image for others to use, whether it is through photos, postcards, prints, miniature or full size copies they represent a resemblance of the original object. "Not all incorrectly attributed items are intentional forgeries . In the same way that a museum shop might sell a print of a painting or a replica of a vase , copies of statues , paintings, and other precious artifacts have been popular through the ages. However, replicas have often been used illegally for forgery and counterfeits , especially of money and coins, but also commercial merchandise such as designer label clothing, luxury bags and accessories, and luxury watches . In arts or collectible automobiles, the term "replica" is used for discussing the non-original recreation, sometimes hiding its real identity. In motor racing, especially motorcycling, often manufacturers will produce a street version product with the colours of the vehicle or clothing of a famous racer
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Forgery
FORGERY is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations . Forging
Forging
money or currency is more often called counterfeiting . But consumer goods may also be _counterfeits_ if they are not manufactured or produced by the designated manufacturer or producer given on the label or flagged by the trademark symbol. When the object forged is a record or document it is often called a false document . This usage of "forgery" does not derive from metalwork done at a forge, but it has a parallel history. A sense of "to counterfeit " is already in the Anglo-French verb _forger_, meaning "falsify". A forgery is essentially concerned with a produced or altered object. Where the prime concern of a forgery is less focused on the object itself – what it is worth or what it "proves" – than on a tacit statement of criticism that is revealed by the reactions the object provokes in others, then the larger process is a hoax . In a hoax, a rumor or a genuine object planted in a concocted situation, may substitute for a forged physical object
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Derivative Work
In copyright law , a DERIVATIVE WORK is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the UNDERLYING WORK). The derivative work becomes a second, separate work independent in form from the first. The transformation, modification or adaptation of the work must be substantial and bear its author's personality to be original and thus protected by copyright. Translations, cinematic adaptations and musical arrangements are common types of derivative works. Most countries' legal systems seek to protect both original and derivative works. They grant authors the right to impede or otherwise control their integrity and the author's commercial interests. Derivative works and their authors benefit in turn from the full protection of copyright without prejudicing the rights of the original work's author. CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Berne * 1.2 United States of America * 1.3 European Union * 2 When does derivative-work copyright apply? * 2.1 Originality requirement * 2.2 Lawful works requirement * 3 When does derivative-work liability apply? * 3.1 Fixation requirement * 4 The fair use defense in derivative work cases * 4.1 Transformativeness * 4.2 Examples of derivative works under U.S
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Creativity
CREATIVITY is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea , a scientific theory , a musical composition , or a joke ) or a physical object (such as an invention , a literary work , or a painting ). Scholarly interest in creativity involves many definitions and concepts pertaining to a number of disciplines: engineering , psychology , cognitive science , education , philosophy (particularly philosophy of science ), technology , theology , sociology , linguistics , business studies , songwriting , and economics , covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, mental and neurological processes, personality type and creative ability, creativity and mental health; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology; the maximization of creativity for national economic benefit, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning
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Artist
An ARTIST is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts , or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism
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Writer
A WRITER is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, poetry, plays, screenplays, and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is also used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term, "writer" normally refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition . Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature. Some writers may use images (drawing, painting, graphics) or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words
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Intellectual
An INTELLECTUAL is a person who engages in critical thinking , research , and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems. Some gain authority as public intellectuals. Coming from the world of culture , either as a creator or as a mediator, the intellectual participates in politics either to defend a concrete proposition or to denounce an injustice, usually by rejecting, producing or extending an ideology , and by defending a system of values . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Terms and endeavours * 3 Historical background * 3.1 19th-century * 3.1.1 Britain * 3.1.2 Continental Europe * 3.1.3 Germany * 3.2 Intellectuals in the East * 4 Intelligentsia * 4.1 Marxist perspective * 5 Public intellectual * 5.1 Social background * 5.2 Academic background * 5.3 Public policy role * 6 Criticism * 6.1 Liberal ideology * 6.2 Intelligentsia * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 9.1 Footnotes * 9.2 Sources * 10 Further reading * 11 External links DEFINITIONSSocially, intellectuals constitute the intelligentsia , a status class organised either by ideology (conservative , fascist , socialist , liberal , reactionary , revolutionary , democratic , communist intellectuals, _et al._), or by nationality (American intellectuals, French intellectuals, Ibero–American intellectuals, _et al._)
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Romanticism
ROMANTICISM (also the ROMANTIC ERA or the ROMANTIC PERIOD) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution , the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment , and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity . It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, and the natural sciences . It had a significant and complex effect on politics, and while for much of the Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism , its long-term effect on the growth of nationalism was perhaps more significant. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension , horror and terror , and awe —especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu )
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Ideal (ethics)
An IDEAL is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal , usually in the context of ethics . Ideals are particularly important in ethics, as the order in which one places them tends to determine the degree to which one reveals them as real and sincere. It is the application, in ethics, of a universal . It is roughly similar to the relative intrinsic values . Someone who claims to have an ideal of honesty but is willing to lie to protect a friend is demonstrating that not only does he hold friendship as an ideal, but, that it is a more important one than honesty. Thus ideals can be seen to be similar to values . However, the -ism of ideals is slightly contrasted with idealism (which is the doctrine that ideas, or thought, make up either the whole or an indispensable aspect of any full reality, so that a world of material objects containing no thought either could not exist as it is experienced, or would not be fully "real.") CONTENTS * 1 In applied ethics * 2 In politics * 3 Idols and heroes * 4 Ideal and virtue * 5 Relative ideal * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 External links IN APPLIED ETHICSIn some theories of applied ethics , such as that of Rushworth Kidder , there is importance given to such orders as a way to resolve disputes . In law , for instance, a judge is sometimes called on to resolve the balance between the ideal of truth , which would advise hearing out all evidence, and the ideal of fairness
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Western Culture
WESTERN CULTURE, sometimes equated with WESTERN CIVILIZATION, OCCIDENTAL CULTURE, the WESTERN WORLD, WESTERN SOCIETY, EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION, or JUDEO-GRECO-CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs , belief systems , political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe . The term also applies beyond Europe, to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. For example, _Western Culture_ includes countries in the Americas and Australasia , whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are currently European. Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic, literary and legal themes and traditions; the heritage of Greek , Roman , Jewish , Germanic, Celtic , Slavic and other ethnic and linguistic groups, as well as Middle Eastern Christianity including the Roman Catholic Church , and the Orthodox Church , which played an important part in the shaping of Western civilization since at least the 4th century. The teachings of Jesus, such as the Parable of the Good Samaritan , are among the important sources for modern notions of Human Rights and the welfare measures commonly provided by governments in the West
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Shakespeare
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (/ˈʃeɪkspɪər/ ; 26 April 1564 (baptised ) – 23 April 1616) was an English poet , playwright , and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet , and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations , consist of approximately 38 plays , 154 sonnets , two long narrative poems , and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon , Warwickshire
Warwickshire
. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway , with whom he had three children: Susanna , and twins Hamnet and Judith . Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain\'s Men , later known as the King\'s Men . He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, which has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance , sexuality , religious beliefs , and whether the works attributed to him were written by others
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Legal Concept
LAW is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior . Law
Law
as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, and equality amongst themselves. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes , by the executive through decrees and regulations , or established by judges through precedent , normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts , including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution , written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics , history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions (including Catholic canon law and socialist law ), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law
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Intellectual Property
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP) refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law . INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPRS) are the rights granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks , copyright , patents , industrial design rights , and in some jurisdictions trade secrets . Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property. While intellectual property law has evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term _intellectual property_ began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world
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Invention
An INVENTION is a unique or novel device , method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field . An inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure. Some inventions can be patented. A patent legally protects the intellectual property rights of the inventor and legally recognizes that a claimed invention is actually an invention. The rules and requirements for patenting an invention vary from country to country and the process of obtaining a patent is often expensive. Another meaning of invention is CULTURAL INVENTION , which is an innovative set of useful social behaviours adopted by people and passed on to others. The Institute for Social Inventions collected many such ideas in magazines and books. Invention
Invention
is also an important component of artistic and design creativity . Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge, experience or capability
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