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Original IBM ThinkPad
ORIGINALITY is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions , clones, forgeries , or derivative works . An original work is one not received from others nor one copied from or based upon the work of others.. It is a work created with a unique style and substance. The term "originality" is often applied as a compliment to the creativity of artists , writers , and thinkers . The idea of originality as we know it was invented by Romanticism
Romanticism
, with a notion that is often called romantic originality . The concept of originality is culturally contingent. It became an ideal in Western culture
Western culture
starting from the 18th century
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Swiss Copyright Law
The COPYRIGHT LAW OF SWITZERLAND is based on the concept of "author's rights" (Urheberrecht in German , droit d'auteur in French , diritto d'autore in Italian ), which is similar to the French copyright law , instead of the concept of Copyright
Copyright
used in common law jurisdictions. The current copyright law of Switzerland
Switzerland
is the Swiss Federal Copyright
Copyright
Act of 1992, which dates from October 9, 1992 and has only seen minor revisions since then. In October 2007, a revision was approved in order to implement the WIPO
WIPO
Copyright
Copyright
Treaty
Treaty
in the act, a process started in 2004 with the release by the Swiss Federal Council of a draft project
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Preservation (library And Archival Science)
PRESERVATION refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record and relevant metadata, or enhance its value, or improve access to it through non-interventive means. This includes actions taken to influence records creators prior to selection and acquisition. It should be distinguished from conservation-restoration of cultural heritage , which refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is occasionally used interchangeably with preservation, particularly outside the professional literature
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Feist V. Rural
FEIST PUBLICATIONS, INC., V. RURAL TELEPHONE SERVICE CO., 499 U.S. 340 (1991), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States establishing that information alone without a minimum of original creativity cannot be protected by copyright. In the case appealed, Feist had copied information from Rural's telephone listings to include in its own, after Rural had refused to license the information. Rural sued for copyright infringement . The Court ruled that information contained in Rural's phone directory was not copyrightable and that therefore no infringement existed. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Ruling of the court * 3 Implications * 3.1 Other countries * 4 Relation with treaties * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BACKGROUNDRural Telephone Service Company, Inc. is a telephone cooperative providing services for areas in northwest Kansas, with headquarters in the small town of Lenora , in Norton County
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Bridgeman Art Library V. Corel Corp.
COREL CORPORATION (from the abbreviation "COwpland REsearch Laboratory") is a Canadian software company headquartered in Ottawa
Ottawa
, Ontario
Ontario
, specializing in graphics processing. It is known for producing software titles such as CorelDRAW
CorelDRAW
, and for acquiring PaintShop Pro , Video Studio and WordPerfect
WordPerfect
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Products * 3 Acquired products * 4 Corel World Design Contest * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Corel was founded by Michael Cowpland in 1985 as a research laboratory. The company had great success early in the high-tech boom of the 1990s and early 2000s with the product CorelDRAW
CorelDRAW
, and became, for a time, the biggest software company in Canada
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Fiction
FICTION is the classification for any story or setting that is derived from imagination —in other words, not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction
Fiction
can be expressed in a variety of formats, including writings , live performances , films , television programs , animations , video games , and role-playing games , though the term originally and most commonly refers to the narrative forms of literature (see literary fiction ), including novels , novellas , short stories , and plays . Fiction
Fiction
is occasionally used in its narrowest sense to mean simply any "literary narrative". A work of fiction is an act of creative imagination, so its total faithfulness to the real-world is not typically assumed by its audience. Therefore, fiction is not commonly expected to present only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually accurate
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Artifact (archaeology)
An ARTIFACT (usually in American English
American English
) or ARTEFACT (British English ) (from Latin
Latin
phrase arte factum~ars skill + facere to make) is something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology , however, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as: an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity , which is often more complex, as expressed by Carol Kramer in the dictum "pots are not people". Archaeological artifact from Black Sea region: a Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet, 2nd century AD. Examples include stone tools , pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons , jewelry and clothing
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Copying
COPYING is the duplication of information or an artifact based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. With analog forms of information, copying is only possible to a limited degree of accuracy , which depends on the quality of the equipment used and the skill of the operator. There is some inevitable deterioration and accumulation of "noise " (random small changes, not sound) from original to copy; when successive generations of copy are made, this deterioration accumulates with each generation. With digital forms of information, copying is perfect. Copy and paste is frequently used for information a computer user selects and copies to an area he or she wishes. Most high-accuracy copying techniques use the principle that there will be only one type of possible interpretation for each reading of data, and only one possible way to write an interpretation of data
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Analysis
ANALYSIS is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle
Aristotle
(384–322 B.C. ), though analysis as a formal concept is a relatively recent development. The word comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἀνάλυσις (analysis, "a breaking up", from ana- "up, throughout" and lysis "a loosening"). As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen , René Descartes
René Descartes
( Discourse on the Method
Discourse on the Method
), and Galileo Galilei . It has also been ascribed to Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
, in the form of a practical method of physical discovery (which he did not name)
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Painting
PAINTING is the practice of applying paint , pigment , color or other medium to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush , but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes , can be used. Painting
Painting
is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing
Drawing
, gesture (as in gestural painting ), composition , narration (as in narrative art ), or abstraction (as in abstract art ), among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting ), photographic , abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art ), emotive (as in Expressionism ), or political in nature (as in Artivism )
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Photographic Negative
In photography , a NEGATIVE is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest. This reversed order occurs because the extremely light-sensitive chemicals a camera film must use to capture an image quickly enough for ordinary picture-taking are darkened, rather than bleached, by exposure to light and subsequent photographic processing . In the case of color negatives, the colors are also reversed into their respective complementary colors . Typical color negatives have an overall dull orange tint due to an automatic color-masking feature that ultimately results in improved color reproduction. Negatives are normally used to make positive prints on photographic paper by projecting the negative onto the paper with a photographic enlarger or making a contact print
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Analog Recording
ANALOG RECORDING (Greek, ana is "according to" and logos "relationship") is a technique used for the recording of analog signals which, among many possibilities, allows ANALOG AUDIO and analog video for later playback. Analog audio recording began with mechanical systems such as the phonautograph and phonograph . Later, electronic techniques such as wire recording and tape recorder were developed. Analog recording
Analog recording
methods store signals as a continuous signal in or on the media. The signal may be stored as a physical texture on a phonograph record , or a fluctuation in the field strength of a magnetic recording . This is different from digital recording which digital signals are quantized and represented as discrete numbers
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Narratology
NARRATOLOGY is the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect our perception. While in principle the word may refer to any systematic study of narrative, in practice its usage is rather more restricted. It is an anglicisation of French narratologie, coined by Tzvetan Todorov (Grammaire du Décaméron, 1969). Narratology is applied retrospectively as well to work predating its coinage. Its theoretical lineage is traceable to Aristotle
Aristotle
(Poetics ) but modern narratology is agreed to have begun with the Russian Formalists , particularly Vladimir Propp (Morphology of the Folktale, 1928)
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Sequel
A SEQUEL is a narrative , documental , or other work of literature , film , theatre , television , music or video game that continues the story of, or expands upon, some earlier work. In the common context of a narrative work of fiction , a sequel portrays events set in the same fictional universe as an earlier work, usually chronologically following the events of that work. In many cases, the sequel continues elements of the original story, often with the same characters and settings. A sequel can lead to a series , in which key elements appear repeatedly. Although the difference between more than one sequel and a series is somewhat arbitrary, it is clear that some media franchises have enough sequels to become a series, whether originally planned as such or not
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Royal Shakespeare Company
The ROYAL SHAKESPEARE COMPANY (RSC) is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
, Warwickshire, England. The company employs over 1000 staff and produces around 20 productions a year. The RSC plays regularly in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has recently redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007. The new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, and following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre
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Edward Young
EDWARD YOUNG (3 July 1683 – 5 April 1765) was an English poet , best remembered for Night-Thoughts . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Literary career * 3 Night Thoughts * 4 German connections * 5 Clerical career * 6 Other works * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY LIFEHe was the son of Edward Young , later Dean of Salisbury , and was born at his father's rectory at Upham , near Winchester , where he was baptized on 3 July 1683. He was educated at Winchester College , and matriculated in 1702 at New College, Oxford
New College, Oxford
. He later moved to Corpus Christi , and in 1708 was nominated by Archbishop Tenison to a law fellowship at All Souls . He took his degree of D.C.L. in 1719. LITERARY CAREERHis first publication was an Epistle to ... Lord Lansdoune (1713)
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