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Organosulfate
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−. The SO4 core is a sulfate group and the R group is any organic residue. All organosulfates are formally esters derived from alcohols and sulfuric acid, although many are not prepared in this way. Many sulfate esters are used in detergents, and some are useful reagents. Alkyl sulfates consist of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, a polar sulfate group (containing an anion) and either a cation or amine to neutralize the sulfate group
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Carcinogenic
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke
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Organic Synthesis
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.[1] Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry
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Functional Group
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.[1][2] This allows for systematic prediction of chemical reactions and behavior of chemical compounds and design of chemical syntheses. Furthermore, the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group interconversion is one of the basic types of transformations. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. Functional groups can also be charged, e.g. in carboxylate salts (–COO−), which turns the molecule into a polyatomic ion or a complex ion
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3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate
[(hydroxy-sulfooxy-phosphoryl)oxymethyl] -4-phosphonooxy-oxolan-2-yl]purineOther names PAPS 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfateIdentifiersCAS Number482-67-7 N3D model (JSmol)Interactive image Interactive imageAbbreviations PAPSChEBICHEBI:17980 YChemSpider9799 YECHA InfoCard 100.222.927IUPHAR/BPS1719 PubChem CID10214InChIInChI=1S/C10H15N5O13P2S/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-6(16)7(27-29(17,18)19)4(26-10)1-25-30(20,21)28-31(22,23)24/h2-4,6-7,10,16H,1H2,(H,20,21)(H2,11,12,13)(H2,17,18,19)(H,22,23,24)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1 Y Key: GACDQMDRPRGCTN-KQYNXXCUSA-N YInChI=1/C10H15N5O13P2S/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)1
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Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
(also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules
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OECD
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD; French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD
OECD
members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) and are regarded as developed countries
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Genotoxic
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, all mutagens are genotoxic, whereas not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic. The alteration can have direct or indirect effects on the DNA: the induction of mutations, mistimed event activation, and direct DNA damage leading to mutations. The permanent, heritable changes can affect either somatic cells of the organism or germ cells to be passed on to future generations.[1] Cells prevent expression of the genotoxic mutation by either DNA repair
DNA repair
or apoptosis; however, the damage may not always be fixed leading to mutagenesis. To assay for genotoxic molecules, researchers assay for DNA damage in cells exposed to the toxic substrates
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Mutagenic
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens, although not always necessarily so. Some chemicals only become mutagenic through cellular processes
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Biodegradation
Biodegradation
Biodegradation
is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.[a] The term is often used in relation to: biomedicine, waste management, ecology, and the bioremediation of the natural environment. It is now commonly associated with environmentally-friendly products, capable of decomposing back into natural elements. Although often conflated, biodegradable is distinct in meaning from: compostable. While biodegradable simply means can be consumed by microorganisms, compostable makes the further specific demand that the object break down under composting conditions. Organic material can be degraded aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen). Decomposition
Decomposition
of biodegradable substances may include both biological and abiotic steps. Biodegradable matter is generally organic material that provides a nutrient for microorganisms
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Elbs Persulfate Oxidation
The Elbs persulfate oxidation
Elbs persulfate oxidation
is the organic reaction of phenols with alkaline potassium persulfate to form para-diphenols.[1]Several reviews have been published.[2][3][4] Reaction mechanism[edit] A reaction mechanism has been postulated which accounts for the observed para substitution featuring the tautomeric para carbanion of the starting phenolate ion:[5] It begins with nucleophilic displacement on the peroxide oxygen of the peroxodisulfate (peroxydisulfate) ion, to give an intermediate sulfate group (3), which is then hydrolyzed to the hydroxyl group. The reaction is disadvantaged by low chemical yields with recovery of starting material and complete consumption of the persulfate. It is suggested that the phenol in many cases is a catalyst converting the persulfate into a sulfate.See also[edit]Boyland–Sims oxidationReferences[edit]^ Elbs, K. (1893). "Ueber Nitrohydrochinon". J. Prakt. Chem. (in German)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Nitrosylsulfuric Acid
Nitrosylsulfuric acid
Nitrosylsulfuric acid
is the chemical compound with the formula NOHSO4. It is a colourless solid that is used industrially in the production of caprolactam,[2] and was formerly part of the lead chamber process for producing sulfuric acid. The compound is the mixed anhydride of sulfuric acid and nitrous acid. In organic chemistry, it is used as a reagent for nitrosating, as a diazotizing agent, and as an oxidizing agent.[1] Synthesis and reactions[edit] A typical procedure entails dissolving sodium nitrite in cold sulfuric acid:[3][4]HNO2 + H2SO4 → NOHSO4 + H2OIt can also be prepared by the reaction of nitric acid and sulfur dioxide.[5] NOHSO4 is used in organic chemistry to prepare diazonium salts from amines
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