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Organ (music)
In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool")[1] is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument,[2] dating from the time of Ctesibius
Ctesibius
of Alexandria (285–222 BC), who invented the water organ
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Loudspeaker
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer;[1] which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.[2] The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the dynamic speaker, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice. The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound
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Seville Cathedral
The Cathedral
Cathedral
of Saint Mary of the See (Spanish: Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville
Seville
Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville
Seville
(Andalusia, Spain).[1] It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site, along with the adjoining Alcázar palace complex and the General Archive of the Indies.[2] "See" refers to the episcopal see, i.e., the bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. After its completion in the early 16th century, Seville
Seville
Cathedral supplanted Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
as the largest cathedral in the world, a title the Byzantine church had held for nearly a thousand years. It is the third-largest church in the world as well as the largest Gothic church. The total area occupied by the building is 23,500 square meters
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West Point Cadet Chapel
The Cadet Chapel at the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
is a place of Protestant denomination worship for many members of the United States Corps of Cadets. The chapel is a classic example of gothic revival architecture, with its cross-shaped floor plan, soaring arches, and ornate stone carvings. It hosts the largest chapel pipe organ in the world,[1] which consists of 23,511 individual pipes.[2][3] The Cadet Chapel dominates the skyline and sets the architectural mood of the academy.[4] Designed by architect Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
and completed in 1910,[5] the neogothic Cadet Chapel replaced the Old Cadet Chapel which had been built in 1836
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg
St Thomas' Church (French: Église Saint-Thomas, German: Thomaskirche) is a historical building in Strasbourg, eastern France. It is the main Lutheran church of the city since its Cathedral became Catholic again after the annexation of the town by France
France
in 1681. It is nicknamed the "Protestant Cathedral" (la cathédrale du Protestantisme alsacien, Kathedrale der Protestanten) or the Old Lady (Die alte Dame),[1] and the only example of a hall church in the Alsace
Alsace
region. The building is located on the Route Romane d'Alsace
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Ctesibius
Ctesibius
Ctesibius
or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Greek: Κτησίβιος; fl. 285–222 BC) was a Greek inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt.[1] He wrote the first treatises on the science of compressed air and its uses in pumps (and even in a kind of cannon). This, in combination with his work on the elasticity of air On pneumatics, earned him the title of "father of pneumatics." None of his written work has survived, including his Memorabilia, a compilation of his research that was cited by Athenaeus
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Christian Liturgy
Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Organ Pipe
An organ pipe is a sound-producing element of the pipe organ that resonates at a specific pitch when pressurized air (commonly referred to as wind) is driven through it. Each pipe is tuned to a specific note of the musical scale. A set of organ pipes of similar timbre comprising the complete scale is known as a rank; one or more ranks constitutes a stop.Contents1 Construction1.1 Materials1.1.1 Metal 1.1.2 Wood 1.1.3 Glass1.2 Shapes2 Pitch 3 Varieties3.1 Flue pipes 3.2 Reed pipes 3.3 Free reed pipes 3.4 Diaphone
Diaphone
pipes4 See also 5 ReferencesConstruction[edit] Materials[edit] Organ pipes are generally made out of either metal or wood. Very rarely, glass, porcelain, plastic, paper, Papier-mâché, or even stone pipes may be seen
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Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov[a 1] (18 March [O.S. 6 March] 1844 – 21 June [O.S. 8 June] 1908)[a 2] was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.[a 3] He was a master of orchestration. His best-known orchestral compositions—Capriccio Espagnol, the Russian Easter Festival Overture, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade—are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas. Scheherazade
Scheherazade
is an example of his frequent use of fairy tale and folk subjects. Rimsky-Korsakov believed, as did fellow composer Mily Balakirev
Mily Balakirev
and critic Vladimir Stasov, in developing a nationalistic, "Moscalski" style of classical music
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Organ Stop
An organ stop (or just stop) is a component of a pipe organ that admits pressurized air (known as wind) to a set of organ pipes. Its name comes from the fact that stops can be used selectively by the organist; each can be "on" (admitting the passage of air to certain pipes), or "off" (stopping the passage of air to certain pipes). The term can also refer to the control that operates this mechanism, commonly called a stop tab, stop knob, or drawknob. On electric or electronic organs that imitate a pipe organ, the same terms are often used, with the exception of the Hammond organ
Hammond organ
and clonewheel organs, which use the term "drawbar". The term is also sometimes used as a synonym for register, referring to rank(s) of pipes controlled by a single stop. Registration is the art of combining stops
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Combination Action
Registration is the technique of choosing and combining the stops of a pipe organ in order to produce a particular sound. Registration can also refer to a particular combination of stops, which may be recalled through combination action. The registration chosen for a particular piece will be determined by a number of factors, including the composer's indications (if any are given), the time and place in which the piece was composed, the organ the piece is played upon, and the acoustic in which the organ resides.Contents1 Pitch and timbre1.1 Mutations 1.2 Mixtures2 National styles of registration 3 Combination action3.1 Mechanical systems3.1.1 Saint-Sulpice3.2 Early twentieth century 3.3 Modern 3.4 Sequencers4 See alsoPitch and timbre[edit] The pitch produced by a pipe is a function of its length
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Dynamics (music)
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases. Dynamics are indicated by specific musical notation, often in some detail. However, dynamics markings still require interpretation by the performer depending on the musical context: for instance a piano (quiet) marking in one part of a piece might have quite different objective loudness in another piece, or even a different section of the same piece. The execution of dynamics also extends beyond loudness to include changes in timbre and sometimes tempo rubato.Contents1 Purpose and interpretation 2 Dynamic markings2.1 Changes 2.2 Extreme dynamic markings3 History 4 Relation to audio dynamics 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPurpose and interpretation[edit] Dynamics are one of the expressive elements of music
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Organ Builder
Organ building
Organ building
is the profession of designing, building, restoring and maintaining pipe organs. The organ builder usually receives a commission to design an organ with a particular disposition of stops, manuals, and actions, creates a design to best respond to spatial, technical and acoustic considerations, and then constructs the instrument. The profession requires specific knowledge of such matters as the scale length of organ pipes and also familiarity with the various materials used (including woods, metals, felt, and leather) and an understanding of statics, aerodynamics, mechanics and electronics
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