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Organ (music)
In music , the ORGAN (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument , dating from the time of Ctesibius
Ctesibius
of Alexandria (285–222 BC), who invented the water organ . It was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world, particularly during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, where it continued to be used in secular (non-religious) and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it gradually assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church

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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Christian Liturgy
CHRISTIAN LITURGY is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis. Although the term liturgy is used to mean public worship in general, the Byzantine Rite uses the term "Divine Liturgy" to denote the Eucharistic service
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Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See , is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Ctesibius
CTESIBIUS or KTESIBIOS or TESIBIUS (Greek : Κτησίβιος; fl. 285–222 BC) was a Greek inventor and mathematician in Alexandria
Alexandria
, Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
. He wrote the first treatises on the science of compressed air and its uses in pumps (and even a cannon ). This, in combination with his work on the elasticity of air On pneumatics, earned him the title of "father of pneumatics ." None of his written work has survived, including his Memorabilia, a compilation of his research that was cited by Athenaeus
Athenaeus
. Ctesibius' most commonly known invention to this day is pipe organ (hydrauls) on which the invention of piano has been since based
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
NIKOLAI ANDREYEVICH RIMSKY-KORSAKOV (Russian : Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков; IPA: ( listen ) 18 March 1844 – 21 June 1908) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five . He was a master of orchestration . His best-known orchestral compositions— Capriccio Espagnol
Capriccio Espagnol
, the Russian Easter Festival Overture , and the symphonic suite Scheherazade
Scheherazade
—are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas. Scheherazade
Scheherazade
is an example of his frequent use of fairy tale and folk subjects . Rimsky-Korsakov believed, as did fellow composer Mily Balakirev and critic Vladimir Stasov
Vladimir Stasov
, in developing a nationalistic style of classical music
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United States Military Academy
The UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY (USMA), also known as WEST POINT, ARMY, THE ACADEMY, or simply THE POINT, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York
West Point, New York
in Orange County . It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River
Hudson River
with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City
New York City
. It is one of the four U.S. military service academies, and one of the five U.S. service academies . The Academy traces its roots to 1801, when President Thomas Jefferson directed, shortly after his inauguration, that plans be set in motion to establish the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
at West Point. The entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites, buildings, and monuments
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West Point Cadet Chapel
The CADET CHAPEL at the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
is a place of Protestant denomination worship for many members of the United States Corps of Cadets. The chapel is a classic example of gothic revival architecture , with its cross-shaped floor plan, soaring arches, and ornate stone carvings. It hosts the largest chapel pipe organ in the world, which consists of 23,511 individual pipes. The Cadet Chapel dominates the skyline and sets the architectural mood of the academy. Designed by architect Bertram Goodhue
Bertram Goodhue
and completed in 1910, the neogothic Cadet Chapel replaced the Old Cadet Chapel which had been built in 1836. The Old Cadet Chapel was deconstructed and relocated to the entrance of the West Point Cemetery
West Point Cemetery
, where it stands today
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Seville Cathedral
The CATHEDRAL OF SAINT MARY OF THE SEE (Spanish : Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as SEVILLE CATHEDRAL, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville
Seville
( Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
). It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, along with the adjoining Alcázar palace complex and the General Archive of the Indies . "See" refers to the episcopal see , i.e., the bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. After its completion in the early 16th century, Seville
Seville
Cathedral supplanted Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
as the largest cathedral in the world, a title the Byzantine church had held for nearly a thousand years. It is the third-largest church in the world as well as the largest Gothic church
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Organ Pipe
An ORGAN PIPE is a sound-producing element of the pipe organ that resonates at a specific pitch when pressurized air (commonly referred to as wind) is driven through it. Each pipe is tuned to a specific note of the musical scale . A set of organ pipes of similar timbre tuned to a scale is known as a rank or a stop . CONTENTS* 1 Construction * 1.1 Materials * 1.1.1 Metal
Metal
* 1.1.2 Wood
Wood
* 1.1.3 Glass
Glass
* 1.2 Shapes * 2 Pitch * 3 Varieties * 3.1 Flue pipes * 3.2 Reed pipes * 3.3 Free reed pipes * 3.4 Diaphone pipes * 4 See also * 5 References CONSTRUCTIONMATERIALSOrgan pipes are generally made out of either metal or wood . Very rarely, glass , porcelain , plastic , paper , Papier-mâché
Papier-mâché
, or even stone pipes may be seen. A historical organ in the Philippines has pipes made exclusively of bamboo
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Harmonica
The HARMONICA, also known as a FRENCH HARP or MOUTH ORGAN , is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues , American folk music , classical music , jazz , country , and rock and roll . There are many types of harmonica, including diatonic, chromatic, tremolo, octave, orchestral, and bass versions. A harmonica is played by using the mouth (lips and tongue) to direct air into or out of one or more holes along a mouthpiece. Behind each hole is a chamber containing at least one reed . A harmonica reed is a flat elongated spring typically made of brass , stainless steel , or bronze , which is secured at one end over a slot that serves as an airway. When the free end is made to vibrate by the player's air, it alternately blocks and unblocks the airway to produce sound. Reeds are pre-tuned to individual pitches. Tuning may involve changing a reeds length, the weight near its free end, or the stiffness near its fixed end
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Free Reed Aerophone
A FREE REED AEROPHONE is a musical instrument that produces sound as air flows past a vibrating reed in a frame. Air pressure is typically generated by breath or with a bellows . Hornbostel–Sachs number: 412.13. CONTENTS * 1 Operation * 2 History * 2.1 First use in America * 2.1.1 Melodeons in 1840 * 2.2 Europe * 2.3 The accordion in Russia * 2.4 Some notable free reed instruments * 3 Other examples * 4 Related instruments * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OPERATIONThe following illustrations depict the type of reed typical of harmonicas , pitch pipes , accordions , and reed organs as it goes through a cycle of vibration. One side of the reed frame is omitted from the images for clarity; in reality, the frame completely encloses the reed. Airflow over one side of the reed creates an area of low pressure on that side (see the Bernoulli\'s principle article for details), causing the reed to flex towards the low-pressure side
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Loudspeaker
A LOUDSPEAKER (or LOUD-SPEAKER or SPEAKER) is an electroacoustic transducer ; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound . The most widely used type of speaker in the 2010s is the DYNAMIC SPEAKER, invented in 1925 by Edward W. Kellogg and Chester W. Rice . The dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a dynamic microphone , but in reverse, to produce sound from an electrical signal. When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil , a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet , the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday\'s law of induction , which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves . Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound
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Portative Organ
A PORTATIVE ORGAN (PORTATIF ORGAN, PORTATIV ORGAN, or simply PORTATIVE, PORTATIF, or PORTATIV) (from the Latin verb portare, "to carry"), also known during italian trecento as the organetto , is a small pipe organ that consists of one rank of flue pipes , sometimes arranged in two rows, to be played while strapped to the performer at a right angle. The performer manipulates the bellows with one hand and fingers the keys with the other. The portative organ lacks a reservoir to retain a supply of wind, thus it will only produce sound while the bellows are being operated. The instrument was commonly used in European secular music from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Definitions * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CONSTRUCTIONThe portative is constructed simply in order to make it as portable as possible
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Organ Builder
ORGAN BUILDING is the profession of designing, building, restoring and maintaining pipe organs . The ORGAN BUILDER usually receives a commission to design an organ with a particular disposition of stops , manuals , and actions , creates a design to best respond to spatial, technical and acoustic considerations, and then constructs the instrument. The profession requires specific knowledge of such matters as the scale length of organ pipes and also familiarity with the various materials used (including woods, metals, felt, and leather) and an understanding of statics, aerodynamics, mechanics and electronics. However, although in theory the builder is responsible for all facets of construction, in practice organ building workshops include specialists in pipes, actions, and cabinets, and tasks such as manufacture of pipes, metal casting , and making rarely used components are often delegated to outside firms
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