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Ordovices
The ORDOVICES were one of the Celtic tribes living in Great Britain before the Roman invasion . Their tribal lands were located in present-day North Wales
Wales
and England between the Silures to the south and the Deceangli
Deceangli
to the north-east. The Ordovices
Ordovices
were conquered by the Roman governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
in the campaign of AD 77–78. The Celtic name *ordo-wik- could be cognate with the words for "hammer": Irish 'Ord', Welsh 'Gordd' (with a G- prothetic ) and Breton 'Horzh' (with a H- prothetic). The Ordovices
Ordovices
farmed and kept sheep, and built fortified strongholds and hill forts. They were among the few British tribes that resisted the Roman invasion
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Prothetic
In linguistics , PROTHESIS (/ˈprɒθɪsɪs/ ; from post-classical Latin
Latin
based on Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πρόθεσις próthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly PROSTHESIS (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prósthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure . A vowel or consonant added by prosthesis is called PROTHETIC or PROSTHETIC. Prothesis is different from the adding of a prefix, which changes the meaning of a word. Prothesis is a metaplasm , a change in spelling or pronunciation. The opposite process, the loss of a sound from the beginning of a word, is called apheresis or aphesis
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Battle Of The Medway
The BATTLE OF THE MEDWAY took place in 43 AD, probably on the River Medway in the lands of the Iron Age
Iron Age
tribe of the Cantiaci
Cantiaci
, now the English county of Kent
Kent
. Other locations for the battle have been suggested but are less likely. This was an early battle in the Claudian invasion of Britain , led by Aulus Plautius
Aulus Plautius
. CONTENTS * 1 Build-up * 2 Chronology * 3 Location * 4 See also * 5 Notes BUILD-UPOn the news of the Roman landing, the British tribes united to fight them under the command of Togodumnus and his brother Caratacus
Caratacus
of the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
tribe. After losing two initial skirmishes in eastern Kent, the natives gathered on the banks of a river further west to face the invaders. At the same time, the Romans received the surrender of the Dobunni tribe in western Britain
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Geological Period
A GEOLOGIC PERIOD is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth\'s history . Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages . The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Correlation issues * 3 See also * 4 References STRUCTUREThe twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
– are defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS) by reference to the stratigraphy at particular locations around the world
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Celt
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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Cognate
In linguistics , COGNATES are words that have a common etymological origin. In etymology , the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords . The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative". CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Across languages * 3 Within the same language * 4 False cognates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICSCognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną ("die"). English dish and German Tisch ("table"), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin
Latin
discus, but their later meanings are different. Discus is from Greek δίσκος (from the verb δικεῖν "to throw")
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Tacitus
PUBLIUS (or GAIUS) CORNELIUS TACITUS (/ˈtæsᵻtəs/ ; Classical Latin: ; c. AD 56 – c. AD 120) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories —examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius
Tiberius
, Claudius
Claudius
, Nero
Nero
, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus
Augustus
, in AD 14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
, in AD 70. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long
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List Of Roman Governors Of Britain
This is a partial list of GOVERNORS OF ROMAN BRITAIN from 43 to 409. As the unified province "Britannia", Roman Britain
Roman Britain
was a consular province, meaning that its governors had to first serve as a consul in Rome before they could govern it. While this rank could be obtained either as a suffect or ordinarius, a number of governors were consules ordinarii, and also appear in the List of Early Imperial Roman Consuls . After Roman Britain
Roman Britain
was divided, first into two (early 3rd century), then into four (293), later governors could be of the lower, equestrian rank. Not all the governors are recorded by Roman historians and many listed here are derived from epigraphic evidence or from sources such as the Vindolanda letters . Beyond the recall of Gnaeus Julius Agricola in 85 the dates of service of those who can be named can only be inferred
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Charles Lapworth
Prof CHARLES LAPWORTH, FRSLLD , FGS (20 September 1842 – 13 March 1920) was an English geologist who pioneered faunal analysis using index fossils and identified the Ordovician
Ordovician
period. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family * 3 Honours and awards * 4 Lapworth Museum * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHY Charles Lapworth
Charles Lapworth
was born at Faringdon in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ) the son of James Lapworth. He was trained as a teacher at the Culham Diocesan Training College near Abingdon, Oxfordshire. He moved to the Scottish border region, where he investigated the previously little-known fossil fauna of the area. There in 1869 he married Janet, daughter of Galashiels schoolmaster Walter Sanderson and stayed in the area
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Decantae
The DECANTAE were a people of ancient Britain , known only from a single mention of them by the geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
c. 150. From his general description and the approximate locations of their neighbors, their territory was along the western coast of the Moray Firth
Moray Firth
, in the area of the Cromarty Firth
Cromarty Firth
. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
does not provide them with a town or principal place. The name has a base either in the Celtic root *deko-, meaning "good" or "the best". or *dekan- meaning "ten". There were similarly named peoples in Wales, the Deceangli
Deceangli
and in Liguria , the Deciates , as well as a Gaulish
Gaulish
personal name Decantilla. REFERENCES * ^ Rivet, A.L.F.; Smith, Colin (1979). The Place-Names of Roman Britain. London. p. 330. * ^ X
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Durotriges
The DUROTRIGES were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion . The tribe lived in modern Dorset
Dorset
, south Wiltshire
Wiltshire
, south Somerset
Somerset
and Devon
Devon
east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet
Shalfleet
, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria (modern Dorchester , "the probable original capital") and Lindinis (modern Ilchester
Ilchester
, "whose former, unknown status was thereby enhanced" ). Their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii ; and to the east by the Belgae
Belgae
. British Celts, gold stater from the Durotriges
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Damnonii
The DAMNONII (also referred to as DAMNII) were a Brittonic people of the late 2nd century who lived in what became the Kingdom of Strathclyde by the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, and is now southern Scotland
Scotland
. They are mentioned briefly in Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Geography , where he uses both of the terms "Damnonii" and "Damnii" to describe them, and there is no other historical record of them, except arguably by Gildas three centuries later. Their cultural and linguistic affinity is presumed to be Brythonic . However, there is no unbroken historical record, and a partly Pictish origin is not precluded. The Romans under Agricola had campaigned in the area in 81, and it was Roman-occupied (at least nominally) between the time that Hadrian\'s Wall was built (c. 122), through the building of the Antonine Wall (c
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Dumnonii
The DUMNONII or DUMNONES were a British tribe who inhabited Dumnonia , the area now known as Devon
Devon
and Cornwall
Cornwall
(and some areas of present-day Dorset
Dorset
and Somerset
Somerset
) in the further parts of the South West peninsula of Britain, from at least the Iron Age
Iron Age
up to the early Saxon period. They were bordered to the east by the Durotriges
Durotriges
tribe
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Cornovii (Caithness)
The CORNOVII were a people of ancient Britain , known only from a single mention of them by the geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
c. 150. From his description, their territory is reliably known to have been at the northern tip of Scotland
Scotland
, in Caithness
Caithness
. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
does not provide them with a town or principal place
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Corieltauvi
The CORIELTAUVI (formerly thought to be called the CORITANI, and sometimes referred to as the CORIELTAVI) were a tribe of people living in Britain prior to the Roman conquest , and thereafter a civitas of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
. Their territory was in what is now the English East Midlands . They were bordered by the Brigantes to the North, the Cornovii to the West, the Dobunni
Dobunni
and Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
to the South, and the Iceni to the East. Their capital was called Ratae Corieltauvorum , known today as Leicester
Leicester
. CONTENTS * 1 Late Iron Age * 2 Roman times * 3 Name * 4 References LATE IRON AGEThe Corieltauvi
Corieltauvi
were a largely agricultural people who had few strongly defended sites or signs of centralised government. They appear to have been a federation of smaller, self-governing tribal groups
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Setantii
The SETANTII (sometimes read as Segantii) were a possible pre-Roman British people who apparently lived in the western and southern littoral of Lancashire