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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid reference
Grid reference
system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude. It is often called British National Grid (BNG).[1][2] The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers
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National Grid (Great Britain)
National
National
may refer to: Nation or country Nationality
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International Terrestrial Reference System
The International Terrestrial Reference System
International Terrestrial Reference System
(ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface. This is done in much the same way that a physical standard might be described as a set of procedures for creating a realization of that standard. The ITRS defines a geocentric system of coordinates using the SI system of measurement. An International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is a realization of the ITRS. New ITRF solutions are produced every few years, using the latest mathematical and surveying techniques to attempt to realize the ITRS as precisely as possible. Due to experimental error, any given ITRF will differ very slightly from any other realization of the ITRF
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level, the geoid, or any other equipotential surface
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks. Background[edit] Some of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium
Belgium
and France, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe. It was, and still is, used in much of Western Europe
Western Europe
apart from Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland, which have their own datums. It used the International Ellipsoid of 1924 ("Hayford-Ellipsoid" of 1909) (radius of the Earth's equator 6378.388 km, flattening 1/297, both exact)
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GRS 80
GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.Contents1 Geodesy 2 Defining features of GRS 80 3 References 4 External linksGeodesy[edit] Geodesy
Geodesy
is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion, earth tides, and crustal motion) in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth
Earth
abstracted from its topographic features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc. and continued under the continental masses. The geoid, unlike the ellipsoid, is irregular and too complicated to serve as the computational surface on which to solve geometrical problems like point positioning
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World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System
World Geodetic System
(WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation including GPS
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North American Vertical Datum Of 1988
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
(NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. NAVD 88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It held fixed the height of the primary tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski, Quebec, Canada
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European Terrestrial Reference System 1989
The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989
European Terrestrial Reference System 1989
(ETRS89) is an ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame, in which the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
as a whole is static. The coordinates and maps in Europe based on ETRS89 are not subject to change due to the continental drift. The development of ETRS89 is related to the global ITRS geodetic datum, in which the representation of the continental drift is balanced in such a way that the total apparent angular momentum of continental plates is about 0. ETRS89 was officially born at the 1990 Florence
Florence
meeting of EUREF, following its Resolution 1, which recommends that the terrestrial reference system to be adopted by EUREF will be coincident with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian Plate
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Restrictions On Geographic Data In China
Due to national security concerns, the use of geographic information in China is restricted to entities that obtain a special authorization from the administrative department for surveying and mapping under the State Council.[1] Consequences of the restriction include fines for unauthorized surveys, lack of geotagging information on many cameras when the GPS chip detects a location within China, incorrect alignment of street maps with satellite maps in various applications,[2] and seeming unlawfulness of crowdsourced mapping efforts such as OpenStreetMap.[3]Contents1 Legislation 2 Coordinate systems2.1 GCJ-02 2.2 BD-09 2.3 Reverse transformation3 The China GPS shift problem3.1 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau4 Notes 5 ReferencesLegislation[edit] According to articles 7, 26, 40 and 42 of the Surveying and Mapping Law of the People's Republic of China, private surveying and mapping activities have been illegal in mainland China since 2002
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SRID
A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems. Spatial reference systems are defined by the OGC's Simple feature access using well-known text, and support has been implemented by several standards-based geographic information systems. Spatial reference systems can be referred to using a SRID
SRID
integer, including EPSG
EPSG
codes defined by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
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Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
(IRNSS) with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit, Hindi and many other Indian languages, which also stands for NAVigation with Indian Constellation[4]) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. It covers India
India
and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension
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Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
The Universal Transverse Mercator
Transverse Mercator
(UTM) conformal projection uses a 2-dimensional
2-dimensional
Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
to give locations on the surface of the Earth. Like the traditional method of latitude and longitude, it is a horizontal position representation, i.e. it is used to identify locations on the Earth
Earth
independently of vertical position. However, it differs from that method in several respects. The UTM system is not a single map projection
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British Isles
The British Isles
British Isles
are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe
Europe
that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and over six thousand smaller isles.[7] Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have a total area of approximately 315,159 km2,[5] and a combined population of just under 70 million. Two sovereign states are located on the islands: the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
(which covers roughly five-sixths of the island of Ireland)[8] and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
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