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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude
Latitude
and Longitude
Longitude
. It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books or government planning documents
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National Grid (Great Britain)
The NATIONAL GRID is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in England, Scotland and Wales can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere. The UK grid is connected as a wide area synchronous grid nominally running at 50 hertz. There are also undersea interconnections to northern France ( HVDC Cross-Channel ), Northern Ireland ( HVDC Moyle ), the Isle of Man ( Isle of Man to England Interconnector ), the Netherlands ( BritNed ) and the Republic of Ireland ( EirGrid ). On the breakup of the Central Electricity Generating Board in 1990, the ownership and operation of the National Grid in England and Wales passed to National Grid Company plc, later to become National Grid Transco, and now National Grid plc
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Geodesy
GEODESY ( /dʒiːˈɒdᵻsi/ ), — also known as GEODETICS, GEODETIC ENGINEERING or GEODETICS ENGINEERING — a branch of applied mathematics and earth sciences , is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth (or any planet ), including its gravitational field , in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides , and polar motion . For this they design global and national control networks , using space and terrestrial techniques while relying on datums and coordinate systems
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Geodynamics
GEODYNAMICS is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth . It applies physics, chemistry and mathematics to the understanding of how mantle convection leads to plate tectonics and geologic phenomena such as seafloor spreading , mountain building , volcanoes , earthquakes , faulting and so on. It also attempts to probe the internal activity by measuring magnetic fields , gravity, and seismic waves , as well as the mineralogy of rocks and their isotopic composition . Methods of geodynamics are also applied to exploration of other planets. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Deformation of rocks * 2.1 Elastic * 2.2 Ductile * 2.3 Brittle * 2.4 Deformation structures * 3 Thermodynamics * 4 Dynamics of the Earth * 5 Methods * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEW Geodynamics is generally concerned with processes that move materials throughout the Earth
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Geomatics
GEOMATICS (including GEOMATICS ENGINEERING), also known as SURVEYING ENGINEERING or GEOSPATIAL SCIENCE (including GEOSPATIAL ENGINEERING and GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information. In other words, it "consists of products, services and tools involved in the collection, integration and management of geographic data". CONTENTS * 1 Overview and etymology * 2 Science * 3 Engineering * 4 Applications * 5 Areas of knowledge * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEW AND ETYMOLOGYMichel Paradis, a French-Canadian surveyor, introduced geomatics as a new scientific term in an article published in 1981 in The Canadian Surveyor and in a keynote address at the centennial congress of the Canadian Institute of Surveying in April 1982
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Cartography
CARTOGRAPHY (from Greek χάρτης _khartēs_, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν _graphein_, "write") is the study and practice of making maps . Combining science , aesthetics , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: * Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. * Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections . * Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose
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History Of Geodesy
Geodesy
Geodesy
(/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth. The HISTORY OF GEODESY began in antiquity and blossomed during the Age of Enlightenment . Early ideas about the figure of the Earth
Earth
held the Earth
Earth
to be flat (see flat Earth
Earth
), and the heavens a physical dome spanning over it. Two early arguments for a spherical Earth
Earth
were that lunar eclipses were seen as circular shadows which could only be caused by a spherical Earth, and that Polaris
Polaris
is seen lower in the sky as one travels South
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Geographical Distance
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTANCE is the distance measured along the surface of the earth . The formulae in this article calculate distances between points which are defined by geographical coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude . This distance is an element in solving the second (inverse) geodetic problem
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Geoid
The GEOID is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth\'s gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides. This surface is extended through the continents (such as with very narrow hypothetical canals). All points on a geoid surface have the same gravitational potential energy (the sum of gravitational potential energy and centrifugal potential energy). The geoid can be defined at any value of gravitational potential such as within the Earth 's crust or far out in space, not just at sea level . The force of gravity acts everywhere perpendicular to the geoid, meaning that plumb lines point perpendicular and water levels parallel to the geoid if only gravity and rotational acceleration were at work
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Figure Of The Earth
The expression FIGURE OF THE EARTH has various meanings in geodesy according to the way it is used and the precision with which the Earth 's size and shape is to be defined. While the sphere is a close approximation of the true figure of the Earth
Earth
and satisfactory for many purposes, geodesists have developed several models that more closely approximate the shape of the Earth
Earth
so that coordinate systems can serve the precise needs of navigation , surveying , cadastre , land use , and various other concerns
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Geodetic Datum
A GEODETIC DATUM or GEODETIC SYSTEM is a coordinate system , and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects). An approximate definition of sea level is the datum WGS 84 , an ellipsoid , whereas a more accurate definition is Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), using at least 2,159 spherical harmonics . Other datums are defined for other areas or at other times; ED50 was defined in 1950 over Europe and differs from WGS 84 by a few hundred meters depending on where in Europe you look. Mars has no oceans and so no sea level, but at least two martian datums have been used to locate places there
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Geodesic
In differential geometry , a GEODESIC (/ˌdʒiːəˈdɛsɪk, ˌdʒiːoʊ-, -ˈdiː-, -zɪk/ ) is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line " to "curved spaces ". The term "geodesic" comes from _geodesy _, the science of measuring the size and shape of Earth ; in the original sense, a geodesic was the shortest route between two points on the Earth's surface , namely, a segment of a great circle . The term has been generalized to include measurements in much more general mathematical spaces; for example, in graph theory , one might consider a geodesic between two vertices /nodes of a graph . In the presence of an affine connection , a geodesic is defined to be a curve whose tangent vectors remain parallel if they are transported along it. If this connection is the Levi-Civita connection induced by a Riemannian metric , then the geodesics are (locally ) the shortest path between points in the space
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Horizontal Position Representation
A POSITION REPRESENTATION is the parameters used to express a position relative to a reference. Representing position in three dimensions is often done by a Euclidean vector
Euclidean vector
. However, when representing position relative to the Earth
Earth
it is often more convenient to represent vertical position as altitude or depth, and to use some other parameters to represent HORIZONTAL POSITION. There are also several applications where only the horizontal position is of interest, this might e.g. be the case for ships and ground vehicles/cars. There are several options for horizontal position representations, each with different properties which makes them appropriate for different applications. Latitude
Latitude
/longitude and UTM are common horizontal position representations
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Latitude
In geography , LATITUDE is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north –south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or _parallels_, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the _geodetic latitude_ as defined in the following sections. Also defined are six _auxiliary latitudes_ which are used in special applications
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Longitude
LONGITUDE (/ˈlɒndʒᵻtjuːd/ or /ˈlɒndʒᵻtuːd/ , Australian and British also /ˈlɒŋɡᵻtjuːd/ ), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians (lines running from the North Pole
North Pole
to the South Pole
South Pole
) connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich , England, was allocated the position of zero degrees longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
to +180° eastward and −180° westward
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