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Ordnance Survey National Grid
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude . It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents
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World Geodetic System
The WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography , geodesy , and navigation including GPS
GPS
. It comprises a standard coordinate system for the Earth
Earth
, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum or reference ellipsoid ) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational equipotential surface (the geoid ) that defines the nominal sea level. The latest revision is WGS 84 (also known as WGS 1984, EPSG:4326), established in 1984 and last revised in 2004. Earlier schemes included WGS 72, WGS 66, and WGS 60. WGS 84 is the reference coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System

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North American Vertical Datum Of 1988
The NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM OF 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. NAVD 88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada
Canada
, the United States
United States
, and Mexico
Mexico
. It held fixed the height of the primary tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski , Quebec
Quebec
, Canada
Canada
. Additional tidal bench mark elevations were not used due to the demonstrated variations in sea surface topography, i.e., that mean sea level is not the same equipotential surface at all tidal bench marks
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European Terrestrial Reference System 1989
The EUROPEAN TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM 1989 (ETRS89) is an ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame , in which the Eurasian Plate as a whole is static. The coordinates and maps in Europe based on ETRS89 are not subject to change due to the continental drift . The development of ETRS89 is related to the global ITRS geodetic datum , in which the representation of the continental drift is balanced in such a way that the total apparent angular momentum of continental plates is about 0. ETRS89 was officially born at the 1990 Florence
Florence
meeting of EUREF , following its Resolution 1, which recommends that the terrestrial reference system to be adopted by EUREF will be coincident with ITRS at the epoch 1989.0 and fixed to the stable part of the Eurasian Plate. According to the resolution, this system was named European Terrestrial Reference System 89 (ETRS89)
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Restrictions On Geographic Data In China
Due to national security concerns, the USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION IN CHINA IS RESTRICTED to entities that obtain a special authorization from the administrative department for surveying and mapping under the State Council . Consequences of the restriction include fines for unauthorized surveys, lack of geotagging information on many cameras when the GPS chip detects a location within China, incorrect alignment of street maps with satellite maps in various applications, and seeming unlawfulness of crowdsourced mapping efforts such as OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

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GRS 80
GRS 80, or GEODETIC REFERENCE SYSTEM 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model . CONTENTS * 1 Geodesy
Geodesy
* 2 Defining features of GRS 80
GRS 80
* 3 References * 4 External links GEODESY Geodesy
Geodesy
, also called geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth , its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion , earth tides , and crustal motion) in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth
Earth
abstracted from its topographic features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("EUROPEAN DATUM 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks . BACKGROUNDSome of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany
Germany
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Belgium
Belgium
and France
France
, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe
Western Europe

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Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
The INDIAN REGIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (IRNSS) with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Hindi and many other Indian languages, which also stands for NAVigation with Indian Constellation ) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. It covers India
India
and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension. The system at-present consist of a constellation of 7 satellites, with two additional satellites on ground as stand-by. The constellation is already in orbit and system is expected to be operational from early 2018 after a system check. NAVIC will provide two levels of service, the 'standard positioning service' will be open for civilian use, and a 'restricted service' (an encrypted one) for authorized users (including military)
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Legenda (satellite System)
LEGENDA, or the MKRC LEGENDA SYSTEM, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites , which were nuclear powered . Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. SEE ALSO * P-700 Granit REFERENCES * ^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The SEA LEVEL DATUM OF 1929 was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude ) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada
Canada
. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level , the geoid , or any other equipotential surface
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 REFERENCE SYSTEM also known as the Krasovsky ellipsoid , is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian : Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system PZ-90 . It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders. CITATIONS AND NOTES * ^ slide 11, BorodkoREFERENCES * Borodko, Alexander, Topographic and geodetic provisions of the Russian Federation frontier delimitation and demarcation, Federal Agency of Geodesy
Geodesy
and Cartography, International Symposium on Land and River Boundaries Demarcation and Maintenance in Support of Borderland Development, Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand, 6–11 November 2006 This geodesy -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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International Terrestrial Reference System
The INTERNATIONAL TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface. This is done in much the same way that a physical standard might be described as a set of procedures for creating a realization of that standard. The ITRS defines a geocentric system of coordinates using the SI system of measurement. An International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is a realization of the ITRS. New ITRF solutions are produced every few years, using the latest mathematical and surveying techniques to attempt to realize the ITRS as precisely as possible. Due to experimental error , any given ITRF will differ very slightly from any other realization of the ITRF. Also, the difference between the latest WGS84 and the latest ITRF is only a few centimeters
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SRID
A SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (SRS) or COORDINATE REFERENCE SYSTEM (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection , as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems. Spatial reference systems are defined by the OGC 's Simple feature access using well-known text , and support has been implemented by several standards-based geographic information systems . Spatial reference systems can be referred to using a SRID
SRID
integer , including EPSG codes defined by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers . It is specified in ISO 19111:2007 Geographic information—Spatial referencing by coordinates, also published as OGC Abstract Specification, Topic 2: Spatial referencing by coordinate
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Channel Islands
The CHANNEL ISLANDS (Norman : Îles d'la Manche, French : Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche
Manche
) are an archipelago in the English Channel
English Channel
, off the French coast of Normandy
Normandy
. They include two Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
: the Bailiwick of Jersey, consisting of Jersey
Jersey
, the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
, consisting of Guernsey
Guernsey
, Alderney
Alderney
, Sark
Sark
and some smaller islands
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Irish Transverse Mercator
IRISH TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (ITM) is the geographic coordinate system for Ireland. It was implemented jointly by the Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSi) and the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland (OSNI) in 2001. The name is derived from the Transverse Mercator
Transverse Mercator
projection it uses and the fact that it is optimised for the island of Ireland. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Examples * 3 Comparison of ITM, Irish Grid and UTM * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe older Irish grid reference system
Irish grid reference system
required GPS measurements to be "translated" (using co-ordinate transformations ). The more precise the GPS measurements were, the more the translation process introduced inaccuracies
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The Wash
THE WASH is a square bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire . It is among the largest estuaries in the United Kingdom . The Wash is fed by the rivers Witham , Welland , Nene and Great Ouse . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Water temperature * 3 Wash River * 4 Wildlife * 5 History * 5.1 King John\'s losing the Crown Jewels * 6 Local traditions * 7 Landmark * 8 Proposed racetrack * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links GEOGRAPHY Map of the Wash and neighbouring areas The Wash is the large indentation in the coastline of Eastern England that separates the curved coast of East Anglia from Lincolnshire . It is a large bay with three roughly straight sides meeting at right angles, each about 15 miles (25 km) in length
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