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Ordnance QF 25-pounder
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British field gun and howitzer during the Second World War, possessing a 3.45-inch (87.6 mm) calibre. It was introduced into service just before the war started, combining high-angle and direct-fire, relatively high rates of fire, and a reasonably lethal shell in a highly mobile piece. It remained the British Army's primary artillery field piece well into the 1960s, with smaller numbers serving in training units until the 1980s
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Gun-howitzer
Gun-howitzer (also referred to as gun howitzer) is a type of artillery weapon that is intended to fulfill both the role of ordinary cannon or field gun, and that of a howitzer.[1] It is thus able to convey both direct and indirect fire.[1] To be able to serve as a howitzer, gun-howitzers are typically built to achieve up to 60—70° of elevation. For effective direct fire, the gun-howitzers typically employ a fairly long barrel, usually not shorter than 30 calibres. Its ammunition also has a high muzzle velocity and often large calibre (often exceeding 120 mm).[1] Historically the first gun-howitzer was the French canon obusier of 19th century
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Royal Artillery
The Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery
Artillery
(RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army. The Royal Regiment
Regiment
of Artillery comprises thirteen Regular Army regiments, King's Troop
Troop
Royal Horse Artillery
Artillery
and five Army Reserve regiments.[2]Royal Artillery
Artillery
Officers uniform, 1825Royal Artillery
Artillery
repository exercises, 184416 Pounder RML field gun with horse team, c
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QF 4.5 Inch Howitzer
The Ordnance QF 4.5-inch howitzer
QF 4.5-inch howitzer
was the standard British Empire field (or ‘light’) howitzer of the First World War
First World War
era. It replaced the BL 5-inch howitzer
BL 5-inch howitzer
and equipped some 25% of the field artillery. It entered service in 1910 and remained in service through the interwar period and was last used in the field by British forces in early 1942. It was generally horse drawn until mechanisation in the 1930s. The QF 4.5-inch howitzer
QF 4.5-inch howitzer
was used by British and Commonwealth forces in most theatres, by Russia and by British troops in Russia in 1919. Its calibre (114 mm) and hence shell weight were greater than those of the equivalent German field howitzer (105 mm); France did not have an equivalent
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Limbers And Caissons
A limber is a two-wheeled cart designed to support the trail of an artillery piece, or the stock of a field carriage such as a caisson or traveling forge, allowing it to be towed. The trail is the hinder end of the stock of a gun-carriage, which rests or slides on the ground when the carriage is unlimbered.[1] A caisson is a two-wheeled cart designed to carry artillery ammunition.[2] The British term was "ammunition wagon". Caissons are used to bear the casket of the deceased in some state and military funerals in certain Western cultures, including the United States.Contents1 Before the 19th century 2 Nineteenth century 3 20th century 4 Caissons in American and British culture 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBefore the 19th century[edit]Limber (left) and gun, ca. 1461As artillery pieces developed trunnions and were placed on carriages featuring two wheels and a trail, a limber was devised. This was a simple cart with a pintle
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Morris C8
The Morris Commercial C8 FAT (Field Artillery Tractor), commonly known as a Quad, is an artillery tractor used by the British and Commonwealth (including Canadian Army) forces during the Second World War.[1] It was used to tow field artillery pieces, such as the 25-pounder gun-howitzer, and anti-tank guns, such as the 17-pounder. Although its sloped sides suggest otherwise,[citation needed] the Quad was not armoured.Contents1 Development 2 History 3 Variants 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDevelopment[edit] In 1937 the War Department identified a need for a new FAT to supplement, and then replace, the Light Dragon and Morris CDSWs then in service. A specification was issued for a four-wheeled, four-wheel drive vehicle, with winch, on a short chassis. Guy Motors
Guy Motors
produced their design quite quickly using existing components, and Morris followed with theirs
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County Antrim
County Antrim
County Antrim
(named after the town of Antrim, from Irish: Aontroim, meaning "lone ridge", [ˈeːnˠt̪ˠɾˠɪmʲ])[5]) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometres (1,176 sq mi)[6] and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim
County Antrim
has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile.[7] It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim
Glens of Antrim
offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, Bushmills
Bushmills
produces whiskey, and Portrush
Portrush
is a popular seaside resort and night-life area
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Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Ireland
(Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann [ˈt̪ˠuəʃcəɾˠt̪ˠ ˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ] ( listen);[8] Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the north-east of the island of Ireland,[9][10] variously described as a country, province or region.[11][12][13] Northern Ireland
Ireland
shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863,[4] constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population
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Muzzle-brake
A muzzle brake or recoil compensator is a device connected to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon that redirects propellant gases to counter recoil and unwanted rising of the barrel.[1] The concept was first introduced for artillery and was a common feature on many anti-tank guns, especially those mounted on tanks, in order to reduce the area needed to take up the strokes of recoil and kickback. They have been used in various forms for rifles and pistols to help control recoil and the rising of the barrel that normally occurs after firing. They are used on pistols for practical pistol competitions, and are usually called compensators in this context.[2]Contents1 Rationale 2 Design and construction 3 Venting direction 4 Effectiveness 5 Disadvantages 6 US legislation and regulation 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksRationale[edit]Illustration of forces in muzzle rise. Projectile and propellant gases act on barrel along barrel center line A
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Sexton (artillery)
The 25pdr SP, tracked, Sexton[2] was a self-propelled artillery vehicle of the Second World War. It was based on Canadian-built derivatives of the American M3 Lee
M3 Lee
and M4 Sherman
M4 Sherman
tank chassis, which entered production in Canada as the Ram and Grizzly. When Sherman production in the US expanded and supply was no longer a problem, in 1943 it was decided to switch the Canadian production lines to produce the Sexton to give the British Army a mobile artillery gun using their Ordnance QF 25 pounder
Ordnance QF 25 pounder
gun-howitzer, which could fire an 87.6 mm (3.45 in) 11.5 kg (25 lb) HE shell or an armour-piercing shell. It found use in the Canadian and British Army, as well as numerous other British Empire
British Empire
and associated forces
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Obturation
In the field of firearms and airguns, obturation denotes necessary barrel blockage or fit by a deformed soft projectile[1] (obturation in general is closing up an opening). A bullet or pellet, made of soft material and often with a concave base, will flare under the heat and pressure of firing, filling the bore and engaging the barrel's rifling. The mechanism by which an undersized soft-metal projectile enlarges to fill the barrel is, for hollow-base bullets, expansion from gas pressure within the base cavity and, for solid-base bullets, "upsetting"—the combined shortening and thickening that occurs when a malleable metal object is struck forcibly at one end. For shotgun shells which have multiple pellets much smaller than the barrel bore, obturation is achieved by placing a plastic wad or biodegradable card of the same diameter as the barrel between the propellant powder and the pellets
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Armor-piercing
An armor-piercing shell,[a] AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor. From the 1860s to 1950s, a major application of armor-piercing projectiles was to defeat the thick armor carried on many warships. From the 1920s onwards, armor-piercing weapons were required for anti-tank missions. AP rounds smaller than 20 mm are typically known as "armor-piercing ammunition", and are intended for lightly-armored targets such as body armor, bulletproof glass and light armored vehicles. The classic AP shell is now seldom used in naval warfare, as modern warships have little or no armor protection, and newer technologies have displaced the classic AP design in the anti-tank role. An armor-piercing shell must withstand the shock of punching through armor plating. Shells designed for this purpose have a greatly strengthened body with a specially hardened and shaped nose
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Roermond
Roermond
Roermond
(Dutch pronunciation: [ruːrˈmɔnt] ( listen); Limburgish: Remunj) is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands. Roermond
Roermond
is an historically important town, on the lower Roer
Roer
at the east bank of the Meuse
Meuse
river. It received town rights in 1231. Roermond
Roermond
town centre has been designated as a conservation area. Through the centuries the town has filled the role of commercial centre, principal town in the duchy of Guelders
Guelders
and since 1559 it has served as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of Roermond. The skyline of the historic town is dominated by the towers of its two churches: St. Christopher Cathedral and Roermond Minster
Roermond Minster
or 'Munsterkerk' in Dutch
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Pakistan Ordnance Factories
The Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories (POF) is a major firearms, defence contractor, and military corporation headquartered in Wah Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan.[2] It is "the largest defence industrial complex under the Ministry of Defence Production, producing conventional arms & ammo to international standards. POF Board headquarter is at Wah Cantt. Presently POF comprises of [sic] 14 ordnance factories and three commercial subsidiaries. Pakistan
Pakistan
Ordnance Factories also manufacture commercial explosives, hunting ammunition and possess extensive facilities for the manufacture of brass, copper and aluminum ingots, extrusions and sections for non-military applications
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Nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose
(also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it was originally known as guncotton. Partially nitrated cellulose has found uses as a plastic film and in inks and wood coatings.[2] In 1862 the first man-made plastic, nitrocellulose (branded Parkesine), was created by Alexander Parkes from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention by plasticizing the nitrocellulose with camphor so that it could be processed into finished form and used as a photographic film
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