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Order Of Canada
This audio file was created from a revision of the "Order of Canada" article dated 2012-01-21, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help ) MORE SPOKEN ARTICLES The ORDER OF CANADA (French : _Ordre du Canada_) is a Canadian national order , admission into which is the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada . It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit , which is the personal gift of Canada\'s monarch . To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation , the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto , _desiderantes meliorem patriam_, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16. The three tiers of the order are Companion, Officer, and Member; specific individuals may be given extraordinary membership and deserving non- Canadians may receive honorary appointment into each grade
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Monarchy Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councils Premiers Legislative ( Queen-in-Parliament ) Federal parliament Senate Speaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisions House of Commons Speaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty\'s Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinet Provincial and territorial parliaments Judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench ) Court system Supreme court Federal chief justice ( Beverley McLachlin ) Provincial and territorial courts Provincial chief justices Constitution
Constitution

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Order (distinction)
Heraldry
Heraldry
portal * v * t * e An ORDER is a visible honour awarded by a sovereign state , monarch , dynastic royal house or organisation to a recipient, typically in recognition of individual merit , that often comes with distinctive insignia such as collars , badges , and sashes worn by recipients. Modern honour systems of state orders and dynastic orders emerged from the culture of orders of chivalry of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, which in turn emerged from the Catholic religious orders . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Orders by fount of honour * 3.1 State orders * 3.2 Dynastic orders * 4 Orders by type * 4.1 Orders of chivalry * 4.1.1 Military orders * 4.2 Orders of merit * 4.2.1 Other * 5 See also * 6 References TERMINOLOGYThe word order (Latin : ordo), in the case referred to in this article, can be traced back to the chivalric orders , including the military orders , which in turn trace the name of their organisation back to that of the Catholic religious orders . Orders began to be created ad hoc and in a more courtly nature. Some were merely honorary and gradually the badges of these orders (i.e. the association) began to be known informally as orders. As a result, the modern distinction between orders and decorations or insignia has become somewhat blurred
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Elizabeth II
ELIZABETH II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926 ) has been Queen of the United Kingdom , Canada , Australia , and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Additionally, she is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica , Barbados , the Bahamas , Grenada , Papua New Guinea , Solomon Islands , Tuvalu , Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Belize , Antigua and Barbuda , and Saint Kitts and Nevis . Elizabeth was born in London as the elder child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth , and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive . She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War , serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service . In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales ; Anne, Princess Royal ; Prince Andrew, Duke of York ; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
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David Johnston
DAVID LLOYD JOHNSTON CC CMM COM CD FRSC(_hon_) FRCPSC(_hon_) (born June 28, 1941) is a Canadian academic, author, statesman and Governor General of Canada , the 28th since Canadian Confederation . Johnston was born and raised in Ontario , studying there before enrolling at Harvard University and later Cambridge and Queen\'s universities. He went on to work as a professor at various post-secondary institutions in Canada, eventually serving administrative roles as dean of law at the University of Western Ontario , principal of McGill University , and president of the University of Waterloo . At the same time, Johnston involved himself with politics and public service, moderating political debates and chairing commissions in both the federal and provincial spheres, his most renowned position in that field being the chairmanship of the inquiry into the Airbus affair . He was in 2010 appointed as governor general by Queen Elizabeth II , on the recommendation of then Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper , to replace Michaëlle Jean as viceroy. At the time, Johnston was predominantly praised as a worthy choice for the Queen's representative, though his appointment was denounced by some Quebec sovereigntists
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Medal Of Service Of The Order Of Canada
The MEDAL OF SERVICE OF THE ORDER OF CANADA was a decoration that was, within the Canadian system of honours , created at the same time as the Companion level of the Order of Canada
Canada
and the Medal of Courage of the Order of Canada
Canada
. The federal cabinet had refused to allow for the establishment of a multi-levelled national order, and thus the Medal of Service was established as a second tier to the Companion level. CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 Conversion * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 References DESIGNThe Medal of Service of the Order of Canada
Canada
was designed by Bruce W. Beatty , and is similar in shape to the other elements of the Order of Canada. A silver stylized snowflake measuring 34 mm across, the obverse depicting a single stylized maple leaf enclosed within a circle, surmounted by a Crown. The reverse bears a silver disc with the word SERVICE around the top. This medallion is worn on the left chest, on a 31.8 millimetres (1.25 in) wide, red and white ribbon. The undress ribbon bore a single plain silver maple leaf in the centre. For men, the Medal of Service was hung from a bar, and for women, on a ribbon bow, both pinned to the left chest
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Order Of Merit
The ORDER OF MERIT (French: _Ordre du Mérite_) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII
Edward VII
, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign—currently Edward VII's great-granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
—and is restricted to a maximum of 24 living recipients from the Commonwealth realms plus a limited number of honorary members. While all members are awarded the right to use the post-nominal letters _OM_ and a medallion for life, the Order of Merit's precedence among other honours differs between realms. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Eligibility and appointment * 3 Current members * 3.1 Substantive members * 3.2 Honorary members * 4 Precedence * 5 Notes * 6 Citations * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe first mention of a possible Order of Merit
Order of Merit
was made following the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
in 1805, in correspondence between First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham and William Pitt , though nothing came of the idea
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Order Of Military Merit (Canada)
The ORDER OF MILITARY MERIT (French : Ordre du mérite militaire) is a military honour for merit that is, within the Canadian system of honours , the second highest order administered by the Governor General -in-Council , on behalf of the Canadian monarch . Created in 1972 to replace a grouping within the Order of Canada , the order was established to recognize members of the Canadian Forces —either regular or reserve personnel—who have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty, achieving conspicuous merit and exceptional military service. The three tiers of the order are Commander, Officer, and Member; specific individuals may be given extraordinary and deserving non-Canadians granted with honorary appointment into each grade. CONTENTS * 1 Grades and precedence * 2 Insignia * 3 Eligibility and appointment * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GRADES AND PRECEDENCEThe Canadian monarch—presently Queen Elizabeth II —is seen as the fount of honour and is thus at the apex of the Order of Military Merit as its sovereign, followed by the governor general—presently David Johnston —who serves as the fellowship's chancellor, and the Chief of the Defence Staff —presently Jonathan Vance —who is the principal commander
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY Toronto OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * English * French ETHNIC GROUPS Ethnic demography * 76.7% White * 14.2% Asian * 4.3% Indigenous * 2.9% Black * 1.2% Latin American * 0.5% Multiracial * 0.3% Other RELIGION List of religion
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Order (honour)
Heraldry
Heraldry
portal * v * t * e An ORDER is a visible honour awarded by a sovereign state , monarch , dynastic royal house or organisation to a recipient, typically in recognition of individual merit , that often comes with distinctive insignia such as collars , badges , and sashes worn by recipients. Modern honour systems of state orders and dynastic orders emerged from the culture of orders of chivalry of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, which in turn emerged from the Catholic religious orders . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Orders by fount of honour * 3.1 State orders * 3.2 Dynastic orders * 4 Orders by type * 4.1 Orders of chivalry
Orders of chivalry
* 4.1.1 Military orders * 4.2 Orders of merit * 4.2.1 Other * 5 See also * 6 References TERMINOLOGYThe word order (Latin : _ordo_), in the case referred to in this article, can be traced back to the chivalric orders , including the military orders , which in turn trace the name of their organisation back to that of the Catholic religious orders . Orders began to be created _ad hoc _ and in a more courtly nature. Some were merely honorary and gradually the _badges_ of these orders (i.e. the association) began to be known informally as _orders_. As a result, the modern distinction between _orders_ and _decorations_ or _insignia_ has become somewhat blurred
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Award
An AWARD is something given to a person, a group of people, like a sports team, or an organization in recognition of their excellence in a certain field. An award may be accompanied by trophy , title , certificate, commemorative plaque , medal , badge , pin , or ribbon . An award may carry a monetary prize given to the recipient; for example, the Nobel Prize for contributions to society or the Pulitzer prize for literary achievements. An award may also simply be a public acknowledgment of excellence, without any tangible token or prize of excellence. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Honorable mention * 3 States * 4 See also * 5 References OVERVIEWAwards can be given by any person or institution, although the prestige of an award usually depends on the status of the awarder. Usually, awards are given by an organization of some sort, or by the office of an official within an organization or government
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Orders, Decorations, And Medals Of Canada
The ORDERS, DECORATIONS, AND MEDALS OF CANADA comprise a complex system by which Canadians are honoured by the country\'s sovereign for actions or deeds that benefit their community or the country at large. Modelled on its British predecessor , the structure originated in the 1930s, but began to come to full fruition at the time of Canada\'s centennial in 1967, with the establishment of the Order of Canada , and has since grown in both size and scope to include dynastic and national orders , state, civil , and military decorations ; and various campaign medals . The monarch in right of each Canadian province also issues distinct orders and medals to honour residents for work performed in just their province. The provincial honours, as with some of their national counterparts, grant the use of post-nominal letters and or supporters and other devices to be used on personal coats of arms . The monarch is regarded as the fount of all honours —as he or she is the only person who may create new national honours—and acts as the Sovereign of all of Canada's orders; she, or other members of the Canadian Royal Family , will conduct inductions or present medals. In Canada, the monarch is represented by the governor general , who also carries out investitures and distributes awards in the sovereign's name
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Canadian Centennial
The CANADIAN CENTENNIAL was a yearlong celebration held in 1967
1967
when Canada
Canada
celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation . Celebrations occurred throughout the year but culminated on Dominion Day , July 1, 1967. Coins were different from other years' issues, with animals on each — the cent , for instance, had a dove on its reverse. Communities and organizations across Canada
Canada
were encouraged to engage in Centennial projects to celebrate the anniversary. The projects ranged from special one-time events to local improvement projects, such as the construction of municipal arenas and parks. The Centennial Flame was also added to Parliament Hill. A Centennial Train traversed the country and school children across the country were able to see exhibits raising their consciousness as to Canadian history and nationalism and enlivening their enthusiasm to visit Expo. Children born in 1967
1967
were declared Centennial babies. CONTENTS * 1 Centennial projects * 2 Expo 67 * 3 Centennial banknote * 4 Centennial Medal * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References CENTENNIAL PROJECTSUnder the Centennial Commission, convened in January 1963, various projects were commissioned to commemorate the Centennial year
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Canadian Confederation
CANADIAN CONFEDERATION (French : _Confédération canadienne_) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada , Nova Scotia , and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. British North America moved through the 1850s and early sixties towards a modestly spectacular resolution of their various ambitions and problems in the British North America Act. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec ; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories
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Canadians
Canadian English and Canadian French Numerous indigenous languages are also recognized. Various other languages . RELIGION Multiple denominations CANADIANS (French : _Canadiens / Canadiennes_) are people identified with the country of Canada . This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural. For most Canadians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being _Canadian_. Canada is a bilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization , different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French, British, and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity . Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States . Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867
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