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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Parareptilia
PARAREPTILIA ("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida
Anapsida
. Whether the term is valid depends on the phylogenetic position of turtles , whose relationships to other reptilian groups are still uncertain. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATIONThe name Parareptilia
Parareptilia
was coined by Olson in 1947 to refer to an extinct group of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
reptiles, as opposed to the rest of the reptiles or Eureptilia
Eureptilia
("true reptiles"). Life restoration of Nyctiphruretus acudens The name fell into disuse until it was revived by cladistic studies, to refer to those anapsids that were thought to be unrelated to turtles. Gauthier et al
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Simiiformes
The SIMIANS (infraorder SIMIIFORMES) are monkeys , cladistically including the apes : the New World monkeys or platyrrhines , and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes . The simian line and the tarsier line diverged about 60 million years ago (during the Cenozoic era ). Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys. The remaining simians (catarrhines) split 25 million years ago into apes and Old World monkeys
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Hallucicrania
HALLUCICRANIA is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian epoch (middle Sakmarian stage) to the latest Triassic
Triassic
period (latest Rhaetian
Rhaetian
stage) of Africa
Africa
, Antarctica
Antarctica
, Asia , Australia
Australia
, Europe
Europe
, North America
North America
and South America
South America
. PHYLOGENY Hallucicrania
Hallucicrania
was named Michael S. Y. Lee in 1995 , and defined as the node-based taxon formed by Lanthanosuchoidea and Pareiasauria and all its descendants. The clade ANKYRAMORPHA named by the paleontologists Michael deBraga and Robert R
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Boreoeutheria
BOREOEUTHERIA (synonymous with BOREOTHERIA) (Greek: βόρειο "north " + ευ "good" + θεριό "beast") is a clade (magnorder ) of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria
(most hoofed mammals, most pawed carnivores, and several other groups) and Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates). It is now well supported by DNA sequence
DNA sequence
analyses, as well as retrotransposon presence or absence data . The earliest known fossils belonging to this group date to about 65 million years ago, shortly after the K-Pg extinction event , though molecular data suggest they may have originated earlier, during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. With the exception of rhinoceroses and cetaceans , male members of the clade share the distinction of external testicles
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Prefix
A PREFIX is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a PREFORMATIVE, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed. Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional , creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational , creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category . Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes . In English , there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes instead for that purpose
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Scientific Name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753
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Fishes
Tetrapods FISH are the gill -bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits . They form a sister group to the tunicates , together forming the olfactores . Included in this definition are the living hagfish , lampreys , and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes , so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology . The traditional term PISCES (also ICHTHYES) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea ( Old World
Old World
monkeys) Hominoidea
Hominoidea
(apes) CATARRHINI is one of the two subdivisions of the simians , the other being the plathyrrhine ( New World
New World
monkeys ). The Catarrhini
Catarrhini
contains the Old World
Old World
monkeys and the apes ; the latter of which are in turn further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes , consisting of the orangutans , gorillas , chimpanzees , and humans . The Catarrhine are all native to Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. Members of this parvorder are called CATARRHINES. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Classification and evolution * 2.1 Cladogram * 3 References DESCRIPTIONThe technical distinction between the New World
New World
platyrrhines and Old World catarrhines is the shape of their noses
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Michael Benton
MICHAEL JAMES "MIKE" BENTON FRS (born 8 April 1956) is a British palaeontologist, and professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol
University of Bristol
. His published work has mostly concentrated on the evolution of Triassic reptiles but he has also worked on extinction events and faunal changes in the fossil record. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Research * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONBenton was educated at the University of Aberdeen and Newcastle University where he was awarded a PhD in 1981. RESEARCHBenton's research investigates palaeobiology , palaeontology , and macroevolution . Benton is the author of several palaeontology text books (e.g. Vertebrate Palaeontology
Palaeontology
) and children's books
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Species Plantarum
SPECIES PLANTARUM ( Latin
Latin
for "The Species
Species
of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera . It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants . CONTENTS * 1 Publication * 2 Importance * 3 Contents * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links PUBLICATION Species
Species
Plantarum was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes. A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second. Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow , the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden ; the fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes
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De Candolle System
The DE CANDOLLE SYSTEM is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
(1778−1841). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Systems * 2.1 Flore française * 2.2 Théorie élémentaire de la botanique * 2.3 Prodromus * 2.3.1 Subclassis I. THALAMIFLORÆ * 2.3.2 Subclassis II. CALYCIFLORÆ * 2.3.3 Subclassis III. COROLLIFLORÆ * 2.3.4 Subclassis IV. MONOCHLAMYDEÆ * 2.3.5 Other * 3 References * 3.1 Bibliography HISTORYThe first taxonomic system by de Candolle, who introduced the term taxonomy , appeared in his description of the plants of France, his Flore française (1805–1815), in 5 volumes dealing with plant species found in France . The De Candolle system is a subsequent taxonomic system
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Mineral
A MINERAL is a naturally occurring chemical compound , usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition , whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids . The study of minerals is called mineralogy . There are over 5,300 known mineral species; as of March 2017 , over 5,230 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth\'s crust . The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon
Silicon
and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties . Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed
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