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Oral Tradition
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.[1][2][3] The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, ballads, chants, prose or verses. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system, or in parallel to a writing system
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Nationalistic
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Principal Upanishads
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Rudyard Kipling
Joseph Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
(/ˈrʌdjərd/; 30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)[1] was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book
(1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888).[2] His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din" (1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910)
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The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book
(1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. Most of the characters are animals such as Shere Khan
Shere Khan
the tiger and Baloo
Baloo
the bear, though a principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli, who is raised in the jungle by wolves. The stories are set in a forest in India; one place mentioned repeatedly is "Seonee" (Seoni), in the central state of Madhya Pradesh. A major theme in the book is abandonment followed by fostering, as in the life of Mowgli, echoing Kipling's own childhood. The theme is echoed in the triumph of protagonists including Rikki-Tikki-Tavi
Rikki-Tikki-Tavi
and The White Seal over their enemies, as well as Mowgli's. Another important theme is of law and freedom; the stories are not about animal behaviour, still less about the Darwinian struggle for survival, but about human archetypes in animal form
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Law Of The Jungle
"NOW this is the law of the jungle, as old and as true as the sky, And the wolf that shall keep it may prosper, but the wolf that shall break it must die.As the creeper that girdles the tree trunk, the law runneth forward and back; For the strength of the pack is the wolf, and the strength of the wolf is the pack.Wash daily from nose tip to tail tip; drink deeply, but never too deep; And remember the night is for hunting and forget not the day is for sleep.   The jackal may follow the tiger, but, cub, when thy whiskers are grown, Remember the wolf is a hunter—go forth and get food of thy own.Keep peace with the lords of the jungle, the tiger, the panther, the bear; And trouble not Hathi the Silent, and mock not the boar in his lair.   When pack meets with pack in the jungle, and neither will go from the trail, Lie down till the leaders have spoken; it may be fair words shall prevail.   When ye fight with a wolf of the pack ye must fight him alone a
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Śruti
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Michael Witzel
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American
German-American
philologist and academic. He is the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University and the editor of the Harvard Oriental Series (volumes 50-80).Contents1 Biographical information 2 Research 3 California textbook controversy over Hindu
Hindu
history 4 Criticism 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBiographical information[edit] Witzel was born at Schwiebus, then in Germany, now Poland. He studied Indology in Germany
Germany
(from 1965 to 1971) under Paul Thieme, H.-P. Schmidt, K. Hoffmann and J. Narten as well as in Nepal (1972–1973) under the Mīmāmsaka Jununath Pandit.[1] At Kathmandu (1972–1978), he led the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project and the Nepal
Nepal
Research Centre
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Guru
Guru
Guru
(Sanskrit: गुरु
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Assonance
Assonance is a resemblance in the sounds of words or syllables either between their vowels (e.g., meat, bean) or between their consonants (e.g., keep, cape).[1] However, assonance between consonants is generally called consonance in American usage.[2] The two types are often combined, as between the words six and switch, in which the vowels are identical, and the consonants are similar but not completely identical. A special case of assonance is rhyme, in which the endings of words (generally beginning with the last stressed syllable) differ in their initial consonant, while the rest of the word is identical—as in six and mix or history and mystery
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Filip Višnjić
Filip Višnjić (Serbian Cyrillic: Филип Вишњић, pronounced [fîliːp ʋîʃɲit͡ɕ]; 1767–1834) was a Bosnian Serb epic poet and guslar. His repertoire included 13 original epic poems chronicling the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire and four reinterpreted epics from different periods of Serbian history. Born in a village near Ugljevik, Višnjić went blind at the age of eight or nine after contracting smallpox. He lost his family early in life, and began playing the gusle and reciting epic poetry around the age of 20. He spent years wandering the Balkans as a vagabond, and performed and begged for a living. His storytelling abilities attracted the attention of a number of influential figures, and around 1797, he married into an affluent family. In 1809, he relocated to Serbia with his wife and children, and experienced first-hand the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottomans
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Serbia
Coordinates: 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian) Republika Srbija  (Serbian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Боже правде / Bože pravde" "God of Justice"Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo
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Gusle
The gusle (Serbian Cyrillic: гусле, Bulgarian: гусла, Albanian: lahuta, Romanian: lăuta) is a single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe. The instrument is always accompanied by singing; musical folklore, specifically epic poetry. The gusle player holds the instrument vertically between his knees, with the left hand fingers on the strings. The strings are never pressed to the neck, giving a harmonic and unique sound.Contents1 Origin 2 Etymology 3 Overview 4 Epic poetry 5 Serb tradition 6 Montenegrin tradition 7 Albanian tradition 8 Croatian tradition 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External linksOrigin[edit] There is no consensus about the origin of the instrument.[1] 6th-century Byzantine Greek historian Theophylact Simocatta
Theophylact Simocatta
(fl
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