HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Optical Disc
In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium[1] ) on one of its flat surfaces. The encoding material sits atop a thicker substrate (usually polycarbonate) which makes up the bulk of the disc and forms a dust defocusing layer. The encoding pattern follows a continuous, spiral path covering the entire disc surface and extending from the innermost track to the outermost track
[...More...]

picture info

Phase Change Material
A phase change material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is absorbed or released when the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa; thus, PCMs are classified as latent heat storage (LHS) units.Contents1 Characteristics and classification1.1 Organic PCMs 1.2 Inorganic 1.3 Inorganic Eutectics 1.4 Hygroscopic
Hygroscopic
materials 1.5 Solid-solid PCM materials2 Selection criteria 3 Thermophysical properties3.1 Common PCMs 3.2 Commercially available PCMs4 Technology, development and encapsulation 5 Thermal composites 6 Applications 7 Fire and safety issues 8 See also 9 References 10 Further readingCharacteristics and classification[edit] Latent heat
Latent heat
storage can be achieved through liquid→solid, solid→liquid, solid→gas and liquid→gas phase changes
[...More...]

picture info

Indium
Indium
Indium
is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties.[6] Indium
Indium
was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich
Ferdinand Reich
and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium
Indium
was isolated the next year. Indium
Indium
is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement
[...More...]

picture info

Antimony
Antimony
Antimony
is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony
Antimony
compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl.[4] Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. For some time, China
China
has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan
[...More...]

picture info

Alloy
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character.[1] An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined stoichiometry and crystal structure. Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle
for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength
[...More...]

picture info

Optical Storage Technology Association
The Optical Storage Technology Association
Optical Storage Technology Association
(OSTA) is an international trade association which promotes the use of recordable optical technologies and products, and most notably it is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the UDF specification. Representing more than 85 percent of worldwide writable optical product shipment's manufacturers and resellers, it was incorporated in 1992. In the autumn of 2007, OSTA spearheaded a campaign to encourage families and photographers to back up their digital photographs on compact discs
[...More...]

picture info

Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
(March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 2] scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone[7] and founding the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph
Telegraph
Company (AT&T) in 1885.[8][9] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[10] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S
[...More...]

Chichester Bell
Chichester Alexander Bell (1848–1924) was a chemist, first cousin of Alexander Graham Bell, and instrumental in developing improved versions of the phonograph.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Patents 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Bell was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1848 to Professor David Charles Bell (1817–1903) and Ellen Adine Highland.[2][3] David Charles was an elder brother to Professor Alexander Melville Bell, the renowned British authority on elocution and speech.[4] Bell received his Baccalaurei in Medicinâ degree in Medicine and Surgery from Trinity College, University of Dublin, Ireland, on 30 June 1869.[5] Prior to moving to Washington, D.C.
[...More...]

picture info

Charles Sumner Tainter
Charles Sumner Tainter
Charles Sumner Tainter
(April 25, 1854 – April 20, 1940) was an American scientific instrument maker, engineer and inventor, best known for his collaborations with Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, Alexander's father-in-law Gardiner Hubbard, and for his significant improvements to Thomas Edison's phonograph, resulting in the Graphophone, one version of which was the first Dictaphone.[1] Later in his career Tainter was associated with the International Graphopone Company of West Virginia,[2] and also managed his own research and development laboratory, earning him the title: 'Father Of The Talking Machine' (i.e.: father of the phonograph).[3]Contents1 Biography 2 Unpublished manuscript 3 Awards and honors 4 Patents 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Tainter was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, where he attended public school
[...More...]

Nanometre
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
[...More...]

picture info

Micrometre
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;[1] SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 6994100000000000000♠1×10−6 metre (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch).[1] The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm
[...More...]

Royalty Income
A royalty is a payment made by one party, the licensee or franchisee to another that owns a particular asset, the licensor or franchisor for the right to ongoing use of that asset. Royalties are typically agreed upon as a percentage of gross or net revenues derived from the use of an asset or a fixed price per unit sold of an item of such, but there are also other modes and metrics of compensation.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] A royalty interest is the right to collect a stream of future royalty payments.[8] A license agreement defines the terms under which a resource or property are licensed by one party to another, either without restriction or subject to a limitation on term, business or geographic territory, type of product, etc. License agreements can be regulated, particularly where a government is the resource owner, or they can be private contracts that follow a general structure
[...More...]

picture info

Lacquer
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of very different groups. The term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word lākshā (लाक्षा) representing the number 100,000, which was used for both the lac insect (because of their enormous number) and the scarlet resinous secretion, rich in shellac, that it produces that was used as wood finish in ancient India
India
and neighbouring areas.[1] Asian lacquerware, which may be called "true lacquer", are objects coated with the treated, dyed and dried sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum or related trees, applied in several coats to a base that is usually wood
[...More...]

picture info

Diffraction Grating
In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions. The emerging coloration is a form of structural coloration.[1][2] The directions of these beams depend on the spacing of the grating and the wavelength of the light so that the grating acts as the dispersive element. Because of this, gratings are commonly used in monochromators and spectrometers. For practical applications, gratings generally have ridges or rulings on their surface rather than dark lines. Such gratings can be either transmissive or reflective
[...More...]

Revolutions Per Minute
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is a measure of the frequency of rotation, specifically the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute. It is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component. In the French language, tr/min (tours par minute) is the common abbreviation. The German language uses the abbreviation U/min or u/min (Umdrehungen pro Minute).Contents1 International System of Units 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesInternational System of Units[edit] According to the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), rpm is not a unit. This is because the word revolution is a semantic annotation rather than a unit. The annotation is instead done as a subscript of the formula sign if needed. Because of the measured physical quantity, the formula sign has to be f for (rotational) frequency and ω or Ω for angular velocity
[...More...]

James Russell (inventor)
James T. Russell (born 1931 in Bremerton, Washington) is an American inventor. He earned a BA in physics from Reed College
Reed College
in Portland in 1953. He joined General Electric's nearby labs in Richland, Washington, where he initiated many types of experimental instrumentation. He designed and built the first electron beam welder.[1] In 1965, Russell joined the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
of Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle Memorial Institute
in Richland. There, in 1965, Russell invented the overall concept of optical digital recording and playback.[1] The earliest patents by Russell, US 3,501,586, and 3,795,902 were filed in 1966, and 1969. respectively.[2][3] He built prototypes, and the first was operating in 1973
[...More...]

.