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Operation Mascot
Operation Mascot
Operation Mascot
was an unsuccessful British carrier air raid conducted against the German battleship Tirpitz
German battleship Tirpitz
at her anchorage in Kaafjord, Norway, on 17 July 1944. The attack was one of a series of strikes against the battleship launched from aircraft carriers between April and August 1944, and was initiated after Allied intelligence determined that the damage inflicted during the Operation Tungsten raid on 3 April had been repaired. A force of 44 British dive bombers and 40 fighters took off from three aircraft carriers in the early hours of 17 July. German radar stations detected these aircraft while they were en route to Kaafjord, and Tirpitz was protected by a smoke screen by the time the strike force arrived. Few of the British airmen were able to spot the battleship, and their attacks did not inflict any significant damage
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Operation Provident
Operation Provident was carried out during World War II
World War II
by the Home Fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in the period 22–29 November 1944. The purpose of the operation was to carry out attacks on enemy shipping on the coast of Norway
Norway
between latitudes 64° 30′ and 69° North. The operation took place under the personal command of the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, Admiral
Admiral
Sir Henry Ruthven Moore, flying his flag in the aircraft carrier HMS Implacable. It is remembered for the destruction of MS Rigel in Norway's worst disaster at sea. The force consisted of two groups, designated Force 7 and Force 8.[1] Force 7 comprised the flagship Implacable, HMS Dido, and six destroyers: HMS Myngs (Captain (D) 23rd Destroyer Flotilla), HMS Scorpion, HMS Scourge, HMCS Sioux, HMS Zephyr and HMCS Algonquin
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HMS Victorious (R38)
HMS Victorious, ordered under the 1936 Naval Programme, was the third Illustrious-class aircraft carrier
Illustrious-class aircraft carrier
after Illustrious and Formidable. She was laid down at the Vickers-Armstrong
Vickers-Armstrong
shipyard at Newcastle-Upon-Tyne
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne
in 1937 and launched two years later in 1939. Her commissioning was delayed until 1941 due to the greater need for escort vessels for service in the Battle of the Atlantic. Her service in 1941 and 1942 included famous actions against the battleship Bismarck, several Arctic convoys, and the Pedestal convoy to Malta. She was loaned to the United States Navy
United States Navy
in 1943 and served in the south west Pacific as part of the Third Fleet. Victorious contributed to several attacks on the Tirpitz
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Torpedo Bomber
A torpedo bomber is a military aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with aerial torpedoes. Torpedo
Torpedo
bombers came into existence just before the First World War almost as soon as aircraft were built that were capable of carrying the weight of a torpedo, and remained an important aircraft type until they were rendered obsolete by anti-ship missiles. They were an important element in many famous Second World War battles, notably the British attack at Taranto
Taranto
and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.Contents1 Types 2 History2.1 First torpedo bombers 2.2 First World War 2.3 Interwar years 2.4 Second World War 2.5 Replacement and obsolescence2.5.1 Rockets 2.5.2 Multi-role attack/strike aircraft3 Tactics 4 Notable torpedo bomber pilots 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes[edit] Torpedo
Torpedo
bombers first appeared immediately prior to the First World War
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Home Fleet
The Home Fleet
Home Fleet
was a fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
that operated in the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967. Before the First World War, it consisted of the four Port Guard ships.[which?] During the First World War, it comprised some of the older ships of the Royal Navy
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Fjord
Geologically, a fjord or fiord (/ˈfjɔːrd/ ( listen), /fiˈɔːrd/ ( listen))[1] is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.[2] There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Chile, Greenland, Iceland, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Novaya Zemlya, Labrador, Nunavut, Newfoundland, Scotland, and Washington state.[3] Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi) with 1,190 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) when fjords are excluded.[4][5]Contents1 Formation 2 Fjord
Fjord

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Norwegian Sea
The Norwegian Sea
Sea
(Norwegian: Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway. It is located between the North Sea (i.e. north of the United Kingdom) and the Greenland
Greenland
Sea
Sea
and adjoins the Barents Sea
Sea
to the northeast. In the southwest, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
by a submarine ridge running between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. To the North, the Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
Ridge separates it from the Greenland
Greenland
Sea. Unlike many other seas, most of the bottom of the Norwegian Sea
Sea
is not part of a continental shelf and therefore lies at a great depth of about two kilometres on average
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Arctic Convoys Of World War II
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection. Often, a convoy is organized with armed defensive support
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Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918,[2] it is the oldest independent air force in the world.[3] Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world.[4] Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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U-boat
U-boat
U-boat
is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot [ˈuːboːt] ( listen), a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".[1] While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one (in common with several other languages) refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role (commerce raiding) and enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping
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Smoke Screen
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships. Smoke
Smoke
screens are commonly deployed either by a canister (such as a grenade) or generated by a vehicle (such as a tank or a warship). Whereas smoke screens were originally used to hide movement from enemies' line of sight, modern technology means that they are now also available in new forms; they can screen in the infrared as well as visible spectrum of light to prevent detection by infrared sensors or viewers, and they are also available for vehicles in a superdense form used to block laser beams of enemy target desi
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Radar
Radar
Radar
is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio
Radio
waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar
Radar
was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II
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Fighter Aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft,[1] as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed, maneuverability, and small size relative to other combat aircraft. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and some are designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers; often aircraft that do not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. This may be for political or national security reasons, for advertising purposes, or other reasons.[2] A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield
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Dive Bomber
A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops. Diving towards the target simplifies the bomb's trajectory and allows the pilot to keep visual contact throughout the bomb run. This allows attacks on point targets and ships, which were difficult to attack with conventional level bombers, even en masse.[citation needed] Glide bombing is a similar technique using shallower dive angles that does not require a sharp pull-up after dropping the bombs
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