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Operation Checkmate (commando Raid)
OPERATION CHECKMATE was the codename for a raid on shipping at Haugesund
Haugesund
, Norway
Norway
in April 1943 during the Second World War
Second World War
by British Commandos
British Commandos
. The raiding party consisted of seven men of No. 14 (Arctic) Commando who managed to sink one ship using limpet mines . While waiting in hiding for the transport back to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
they were all captured on the 14. and 15. May 1943 and eventually taken to Sachsenhausen and Belsen Concentration Camps where six of them were executed, victims of the Commando Order
Commando Order

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Action Of 28 January 1945
The ACTION OF 28 JANUARY 1945 was an inconclusive naval battle of the Second World War fought between two British Royal Navy light cruisers and three Kriegsmarine (German navy) destroyers near Bergen , Norway . The battle was both the last of many actions between British and German warships off Norway during the war, and the second last surface engagement to be fought by the Kriegsmarine. It resulted in heavy damage to one of the German destroyers and light damage to another destroyer and both British cruisers. Shortly after midnight on the night of 27/28 January, as the three destroyers of the German 4th Destroyer Flotilla were sailing from northern Norway to the Baltic Sea , they were intercepted by the British cruisers HMS Diadem and Mauritius . In the resulting engagement, the destroyers Z31 and Z34 were damaged by gunfire but the German flotilla outran the slower British ships and escaped
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Operation Provident
OPERATION PROVIDENT was carried out during World War II
World War II
by the Home Fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in the period 22–29 November 1944. The purpose of the operation was to carry out attacks on enemy shipping on the coast of Norway
Norway
between latitudes 64° 30′ and 69° North. The operation took place under the personal command of the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, Admiral
Admiral
Sir Henry Ruthven Moore , flying his flag in the aircraft carrier HMS Implacable . It is remembered for the destruction of MS Rigel in Norway's worst disaster at sea. The force consisted of two groups, designated Force 7 and Force 8
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Black Friday (1945)
On 9 February 1945, a force of Allied Bristol Beaufighter aircraft suffered heavy casualties during an unsuccessful attack on the German destroyer Z33 and its escorting vessels; the operation was labelled "BLACK FRIDAY" by the surviving Allied aircrew. The German ships were sheltering in a strong defensive position in Førde Fjord , Norway , forcing the Allied aircraft to attack through heavy anti-aircraft fire. The Beaufighters and their escort of Mustang Mk III fighters from the RAF's No. 65 Squadron were also intercepted by twelve German Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighters of the Luftwaffe fighter wing Jagdgeschwader 5 . In the resulting attack, the Allies damaged at least two of the German ships for the loss of seven Beaufighters shot down by flak guns . Another two Beaufighters and one Mustang were shot down by the Fw 190s. Four or five German fighters were shot down by the Allied aircraft, including one flown by German Ace Rudi Linz
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Action Of 9 February 1945
Timeline * River Plate * 1st Happy Time * HX 72 * SC 7 * HX 79 * HX 84 * HX 90 * SC 19 * Berlin * HX 106 * HG 53 * OB 293 * HX 112 * 4 April 1941 * OB 318 * HX 126 * Denmark Strait * Bismarck * OG 69 * OG 71 * SC 42 * HG 73 * SC 48 * HG 76 * 2nd Happy Time * Torpedo Alley * Neuland * ON 67 * 27 March 1942 * OG 82 * 6 June 1942 * HG 84 * SL 78 * QS 15 * SC 94 * ON 122 * QS 33 * ON 127 * Laconia * SC 100 * SC 104 * HX 212 * SL 125 * SC 107 * Casablanca * ON 144 * ON 154 * TM 1 * SG 19 * SC 118 * ON 166 * UC 1 * SC 121 * HX 228 * UGS 6 * HX 229/SC 122 * Black May * ONS 5 * SC 129 * SC 130 * ONS 18/ON 202 * SC 143 * ONS 20/ON 206 * Sept-Îles * SL 138/MKS 28 * SL 139/MKS 30 * SL 140/MKS 31 * Stonewall * Bay of Biscay * Lyme Bay * 26 April 1944 * 13 May 1944 * Capture of U-505 *
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Operation Judgement (1945)
OPERATION JUDGEMENT was an operation carried out at the end of World War II by the Home Fleet of the British Royal Navy in North Norway on 4 May 1945, when 44 aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm attacked a U-boat base 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the town and port of Harstad . The attack was directed at vessels in the natural harbour at Kilbotn . It lasted seven minutes and left two ships and a U-boat sunk. No Norwegians in the village of Kilbotn were killed or injured during or after the attack. Operation Judgement was the last air raid of World War II in Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 The attack * 3 Aftermath * 4 References BACKGROUNDFrom 1939 to 1945 the German war effort made extensive use of the U-boat as a strategic weapon. From bases in Northern Norway U-boats sailed against the Allied convoys making for Russian ports in the Arctic Ocean. In autumn 1944, when German forces retreated from the extreme north, the U-boat base at Hammerfest was moved south to Kilbotn
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Liberation Of Finnmark
Allied victory * Finnmark
Finnmark
liberated * German withdrawal into Festung Norwegen BELLIGERENTS Soviet Union
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Operation Leader
OPERATION LEADER was a successful air attack conducted by the United States Navy against German shipping in the vicinity of Bodø
Bodø
, Norway, on 4 October 1943, during World War II
World War II
. The raid was executed by aircraft flying from the aircraft carrier USS Ranger , which at the time was attached to the British Home Fleet
Home Fleet
. The American airmen located many German and Norwegian ships in this area, and are believed to have destroyed five and damaged another seven. Two German aircraft searching for the Allied fleet were shot down as well. Three American aircraft were destroyed in combat during the operation, and another crashed while landing. The attack followed a two-year lull in Allied aircraft carrier operations against Norway, and took the German forces by surprise
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Operation Goodwood (naval)
OPERATION GOODWOOD was a series of unsuccessful British carrier air raids conducted against the German battleship Tirpitz
German battleship Tirpitz
at her anchorage in Kaafjord , Norway, during late August 1944. It formed the last of several major attacks made by the Home Fleet
Home Fleet
during 1944 which sought to eliminate the potential threat Tirpitz posed to Allied shipping by badly damaging or sinking the warship. While each of the previous raids on Kaafjord conducted by Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm
aircraft had involved only a single air strike, Operation Goodwood
Operation Goodwood
involved repeated attacks over a week. The Royal Navy hoped that these raids would wear down the formidable German defences. The British fleet departed its base on 18 August, and launched the first raid against Kaafjord on the morning of the 22nd
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Operation Paravane
OPERATION PARAVANE was a British air raid of World War II
World War II
that inflicted heavy damage on the German battleship Tirpitz
German battleship Tirpitz
. The attack was conducted on 15 September 1944 by 21 Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
heavy bombers , which flew from an airfield in the north of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The battleship was struck by one bomb, and further damaged by several near misses. This damage rendered Tirpitz unfit for combat, and she could not be repaired as it was no longer possible for the Germans to sail her to a major port
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Operation Obviate
OPERATION OBVIATE was the RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command
attack on the German battleship Tirpitz at Tromsø
Tromsø
on 29 October 1944. The attack was foiled by cloud covering the ship at the last minute, and the bombs that were dropped caused only minor damage. Tirpitz would finally be sunk in Operation Catechism two weeks later. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Battleplans * 3 Operation * 4 Aftermath * 5 References and notes BACKGROUNDTirpitz was a Bismarck-class battleship
Bismarck-class battleship
of 42,900 tons, armed with eight 38 cm (15 inch) guns . She was designed to attack merchant shipping in the Atlantic, but the loss of Bismarck and other commerce raiders led to instructions that she should be used for limited sorties only
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Operation Catechism
Timeline * River Plate * 1st Happy Time * HX 72 * SC 7 * HX 79 * HX 84 * HX 90 * SC 19 * Berlin * HX 106 * HG 53 * OB 293 * HX 112 * 4 April 1941 * OB 318 * HX 126 * Denmark Strait * Bismarck * OG 69 * OG 71 * SC 42 * HG 73 * SC 48 * HG 76 * 2nd Happy Time * Torpedo Alley * Neuland * ON 67 * 27 March 1942 * OG 82 * 6 June 1942 * HG 84 * SL 78 * QS 15 * SC 94 * ON 122 * QS 33 * ON 127 * Laconia * SC 100 * SC 104 * HX 212 * SL 125 * SC 107 * Casablanca * ON 144 * ON 154 * TM 1 * SG 19 * SC 118 * ON 166 * UC 1 * SC 121 * HX 228 * UGS 6 * HX 229/SC 122 * Black May * ONS 5 * SC 129 * SC 130 * ONS 18/ON 202 * SC 143 * ONS 20/ON 206 * Sept-Îles * SL 138/MKS 28 * SL 139/MKS 30 * SL 140/MKS 31 * Stonewall * Bay of Biscay * Lyme Bay * 26 April 1944 * 13 May 1944 * Capture of U-505 *
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Operation Doomsday
In OPERATION DOOMSDAY, the British 1st Airborne Division acted as a police and military force during the Allied occupation of Norway in May 1945, immediately after the victory in Europe during the Second World War. The division maintained law and order until the arrival of the remainder of Force 134 , the occupation force. During its time in Norway, the division was tasked with supervising the surrender of the German forces in Norway, as well as preventing the sabotage of vital military and civilian facilities. The German Instrument of Surrender was delivered on 8 May to General Franz Böhme , the commander of all German forces stationed in Norway, and the 1st Airborne Division landed near Oslo
Oslo
and Stavanger
Stavanger
between 9 May and 11 May. The majority of the transport aircraft carrying the division landed safely, but three planes crashed with a number of fatalities
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Codename
A CODE NAME or CRYPTONYM is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person. Names are often used for military purposes, or in espionage . They may also be used in industrial counter-industrial espionage to protect secret projects and the like from business rivals, or to give names to projects whose marketing name has not yet been determined. Another reason for the use of names and phrases in the military is that they transmit with a lower level of cumulative errors over a walkie-talkie or radio link than actual names
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Arctic
The ARCTIC (/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/ ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth
Earth

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Other Ranks (UK)
OTHER RANKS (ORS) in the British Army
British Army
, Royal Marines
Royal Marines
, Royal Air Force and in the armies and air forces of many other Commonwealth countries are those personnel who are not commissioned officers , usually including non-commissioned officers (NCOs). In the Royal Navy , these personnel are called "ratings ". Non-commissioned member is the equivalent term for the Canadian Armed Forces
Canadian Armed Forces
. Colloquially, members of the other ranks are known as "rankers". The term is sometimes considered to exclude warrant officers , and occasionally also excludes NCOs. In the United States military , and in the military forces of many non-Commonwealth countries, the equivalent term is enlisted rank , which generally includes non-commissioned officers (unless specifying junior enlisted), but always excludes the American type of warrant officer
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