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Operation Battleaxe
 United Kingdom British India  Poland  Czechoslovakia Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Italo Gariboldi Erwin RommelStrength25,000 men[1] 90 cruisers and c. 100 'I' tanks"[2] 98 fighters[3] 105 bombers[3] 8th Panzer Regiment began with c. 100 tanks, about 50 being gun tanks; 5th Panzer Regiment had 96 tanks (57 gun tanks).[2] 130 fighters[3] 84 bombers[a]Casualties and losses969 casualties[b] 91[c]-98 tanks[d] 36 aircraft[e] 1,270 casualties[f] 12 tanks[g] 10 aircraft[2]v t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesBrevity Skorpion Battleaxe CrusaderFlipper 1st Bir el Gubi Point 175 2nd Bir el GubiGazalaBir HakeimMersa Matruh 1st Alamein Sidi Haneish Alam Hal
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Devil's Gardens
The Devil's gardens
Devil's gardens
was the name given by Erwin Rommel,[1] commander of the German Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
during World War II, to the defensive entanglements of land mines and barbed wire protecting Axis defensive positions during the Second Battle of El Alamein
Second Battle of El Alamein
in late 1942. The defences stretch from the Mediterranean coast to the Qattara Depression.A Matilda scorpion tank equipped for mine clearing.During the 'break-in' phase of the British attack, the commander of the Eighth Army, Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery planned for engineers supporting the infantry brigades of 2nd New Zealand Division to clear lanes through the minefields, along which attacking formations would pass into the Axis positions. Engineers using hand tools were supplemented by Scorpion tanks equipped with rotating flails to explode anti-vehicle mines
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Italo Gariboldi
World War I Second Italo-Abyssinian War World War IINorth African Campaign Eastern FrontBattle of StalingradAwards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross Italo Gariboldi
Italo Gariboldi
(20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia[1] (/ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə, -kə-, -slə-, -ˈvɑː-/;[2][3] Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko[4][5]), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
Slovakia
on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy. Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon
Comecon
from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
of May 1955
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Siege Of Tobruk
Tobruk
Tobruk
or Tubruq (Ancient Greek: Αντίπυργος) (/təˈbrʊk, toʊ-/;[3] Arabic: طبرق‎ Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District
Butnan District
(formerly Tobruk
Tobruk
District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.).[4] Tobruk
Tobruk
was the site of an ancient Greek colony and, later, of a Roman fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica.[4] Over the centuries, Tobruk
Tobruk
also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan route.[4] By 1911, Tobruk
Tobruk
had become an Italian military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Libya
Libya
Libya
(/ˈlɪbiə/ ( listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎),[6][7] officially the State of Libya
Libya
(Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed][dubious – discuss] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
to the south, and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica
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Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica (Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
(Pashto: د خیبر درہ‎, Urdu: درۂ خیبر‬‎) (elevation: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan. It connects the town of Landi Kotal
Landi Kotal
to the Valley of Peshawar
Peshawar
at Jamrud
Jamrud
by traversing part of the Spin Ghar
Spin Ghar
mountains. An integral part of the ancient Silk Road[citation needed], it has long had substantial cultural, economic, and geopolitical significance for Eurasian trade. Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and a strategic military location. The summit of the pass is 5 km (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan
Pakistan
at Landi Kotal
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Second Battle Of Bir El Gubi
XXX British Corps - 11th Indian Brigade around 3,000 men[1] - 7th Armoured Division
7th Armoured Division
14,964 men[2] 22nd Guards Brigade
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Second Battle Of El Alamein
 United Kingdom India  Palestine Australia  New Zealand  South Africa  Free French Free Greeks   United States
United States
(air support)[1][2]Commanders and leaders Ettore Bastico Georg Stumme † Erwin Rommel Harold Alexander Bernard MontgomeryStrength116,000 men[3][a] 547 tanks[b] 192 armoured cars[4] 770[6] – 900 aircraft (480 serviceable)[c] 552 artillery pieces[8] 496 anti-tank guns[d] – 1,063[10] 195,000 men[4] 1,029 tanks[e] 435 armoured cars[4] 730[f] – 750 aircraft (530 servi
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