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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers
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Video Game Console
A VIDEO GAME CONSOLE is an electronic , digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is primarily used to distinguish a console machine primarily designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers . An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, display, game controller (joystick, buttons, etc.) and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles , handheld game consoles , microconsoles and dedicated consoles
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Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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16-bit
In computer architecture , 16-BIT integers , memory addresses , or other data units are those that are 16 bits (2 octets) wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers , address buses , or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1); the unsigned range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KiB of byte-addressable memory. If a system uses segmentation with 16-bit segment offsets, more can be accessed
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Virtualization
In computing, VIRTUALIZATION refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices , and computer network resources. Virtualization began in the 1960s, as a method of logically dividing the system resources provided by mainframe computers between different applications. Since then, the meaning of the term has broadened
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Printer (computing)
In computing , a PRINTER is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper. The first computer printer design was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
for his difference engine in the 19th century; his mechanical printer design was not built until 2000. The first electronic printer was the EP-101 , invented by Japanese company Epson and released in 1968. The first commercial printers generally used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems specifically for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, and dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-quality output. The plotter was used for those requiring high quality line art like blueprints
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Apple Inc.
Coordinates : 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118 Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
The Apple Campus in Cupertino, California FORMERLY CALLED * Apple Computer Company (1976–1977) * Apple Computer, Inc. (1977–2007) TYPE Public


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Virtual Machine Image
A DISK IMAGE, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device , such as a hard disk drive , tape drive , floppy disk , optical disc or USB flash drive
USB flash drive
. A disk image is usually made by creating a sector -by-sector copy of the source medium, thereby perfectly replicating the structure and contents of a storage device independent of the file system . Depending on the disk image format, a disk image may span one or more computer files. The file format may be an open standard , such as the ISO image format for optical disc images, or a disk image may be unique to a particular software application. The size can be huge because it contains the contents of an entire disk. To reduce storage requirements, if an imaging utility is filesystem-aware it can omit copying unused space, and it can compress the used space
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Mass Storage
In computing , MASS STORAGE refers to the storage of large amounts of data in a persisting and machine-readable fashion. Devices and/or systems that have been described as mass storage include tape libraries , RAID
RAID
systems, and a variety of COMPUTER DRIVES such as hard disk drives , magnetic tape drives, magneto-optical disc drives, optical disc drives, memory cards , and solid-state drives . It also includes experimental forms like holographic memory . Mass storage includes devices with removable and non-removable media. It does not include random access memory (RAM)
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Cloud Computing
CLOUD COMPUTING is a form of Internet
Internet
-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., computer networks, servers, storage, applications and services), which can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort. Cloud computing allows users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process data in either a privately owned cloud, or on a third-party server in order to make data accessing mechanisms more efficient and reliable. Data centers that may be located far from the user–ranging in distance from across a city to across the world. Cloud computing
Cloud computing
relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale , similar to a utility
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Cellular Phone
A MOBILE PHONE is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator , which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are often also called cellular telephones or cell phones. In addition to telephony , 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services , such as text messaging , MMS , email , Internet access , short-range wireless communications (infrared , Bluetooth
Bluetooth
), business applications, gaming, and digital photography . Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones . The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F
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Google
GOOGLE is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet
Internet
-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, search , cloud computing , software , and hardware . Google
Google
was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University , in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock . They incorporated Google
Google
as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google
Google
moved to its new headquarters in Mountain View, California
California
, nicknamed the Googleplex
Googleplex

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Linux Distribution
A LINUX DISTRIBUTION (often abbreviated as DISTRO) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system . Linux
Linux
users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt ) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint ) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution ). A typical Linux
Linux
distribution comprises a Linux
Linux
kernel, GNU
GNU
tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System
X Window System
), a window manager , and a desktop environment
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Personal Computer Hardware
COMPUTER HARDWARE is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system . Computer
Computer
hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard , computer data storage , graphic card , sound card , motherboard , and so on, all of which are tangible objects. By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction . A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system
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32-bit
In computer architecture , 32-BIT integers , memory addresses , or other data units are those that are 32 bits (4 octets ) wide. Also, 32-bit
32-bit
CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers , address buses , or data buses of that size. 32-bit
32-bit
microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit
32-bit
microprocessors are the norm. CONTENTS * 1 Range for storing integers * 2 Technical history * 3 Architectures * 4 Applications * 5 Images * 6 File
File
formats * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links RANGE FOR STORING INTEGERSA 32-bit
32-bit
register can store 232 different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 32 bits depends on the integer representation used
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Firmware
In electronic systems and computing , FIRMWARE is a type of software that provides control, monitoring and data manipulation of engineered products and systems. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems , consumer appliances, computers, computer peripherals, and others. The firmware contained in these devices provides the low-level control program for the device. Firmware
Firmware
is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM , EPROM
EPROM
, or flash memory . Changing the firmware of a device may rarely or never be done during its lifetime; some firmware memory devices are permanently installed and cannot be changed after manufacture. Common reasons for updating firmware include fixing bugs or adding features to the device. This may require ROM integrated circuits to be physically replaced, or flash memory to be reprogrammed through a special procedure
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