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Opening Sentence
At the beginning of a written work stands the OPENING SENTENCE. The opening line is part or all of the opening sentence that may start the lead paragraph . For older texts the Latin term "incipit " (it begins) is in use for the very first words of the opening sentence. As in speech, a personal document such as a letter normally starts with a salutation ; this, however, tends not to be the case in documents , articles , essays , poetry , lyrics , and general works of fiction and nonfiction . In nonfiction, the opening sentence generally points the reader to the subject under discussion directly in a matter-of-fact style. In journalism, the opening line typically sets out the scope of the article. In fiction, authors have much liberty in the way they can cast the beginning. Techniques to hold the reader's attention include keeping the opening sentence to the point, showing attitude, shocking, and being controversial
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Written Work
WRITING is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language . Writing
Writing
is not a language, but a tool USED TO MAKE LANGUAGES BE READ. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary , grammar , and semantics , with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of writing is called text, and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication , storytelling , correspondence and diary . Writing
Writing
has been instrumental in keeping history , maintaining culture , dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems
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Lead Paragraph
In writing, especially in journalism , a LEAD PARAGRAPH (sometimes shortened to LEAD; also spelled LEDE) is the opening paragraph of an article, essay, book chapter, or other written work that summarizes its main ideas. CONTENTS * 1 Spelling * 2 Other introductions * 3 Types of ledes * 4 See also * 5 References SPELLINGThe term is sometimes spelled "lede" with a claim it was a historical spelling intended to distinguish it from the homograph lead ; however, the spelling 'lede' does not appear in any journalism style books or textbooks before 1959. OTHER INTRODUCTIONSIn journalism , the lead paragraph should not be confused with the standfirst (UK), rider, kicker (US), bank head(line), deck, dek, or subhead (US). These terms refer to an introductory or summary line or brief paragraph, located immediately above or below the headline, and typographically distinct from the body of the article
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Incipit
The _INCIPIT_ (English: /ˈɪnsɪpɪt/ ) of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition , an incipit is an initial sequence of notes , having the same purpose. The word _incipit_ comes from Latin
Latin
and means "it begins". Before the development of titles , texts were often referred to by their incipits, as with for example _Agnus Dei _. During the medieval period in Europe, incipits were often written in a different script or colour from the rest of the work of which they were a part, and "incipit pages" might be heavily decorated with illumination. Though the word _incipit_ is Latin, the practice of the incipit predates classical antiquity by several millennia and can be found in various parts of the world. Although not always called by the name of _incipit_ today, the practice of referring to texts by their initial words remains commonplace
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Salutation (greeting)
A SALUTATION is a greeting used in a letter or other written or non-written communication. Salutations can be formal or informal. The most common form of salutation in an English letter is Dear followed by the recipient's given name or title . For each style of salutation there is an accompanying style of complimentary close, known as valediction . Examples of non-written salutations are bowing (common in Japan) or even addressing somebody by their name. A salutation can be interpreted as a form of a signal in which the receiver of the salutation is being acknowledged, respected or thanked. Another simple but very common example of a salutation is a military salute. By saluting another rank, that person is signalling or showing his or her acknowledgment of the importance or significance of that person and his or her rank. Some greetings are considered vulgar, others "rude" and others "polite"
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Document
A DOCUMENT is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought . The word originates from the Latin _documentum_, which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb _doceō_ denotes "to teach". In the past the word was usually used to denote a written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the computer age , "document" usually denotes a primarily textual computer file , including its structure and format, e. g. fonts, colors, and images . Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium , e. g., paper, given the existence of electronic documents . "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document". Documents are also distinguished from "realia ", which are 3 dimensional objects that would otherwise satisfy the definition of "document" because they memorialize or represent thought; documents are considered more as 2 dimensional representations
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Article (publishing)
An ARTICLE is a written work published in a print or electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of propagating news, research results, academic analysis or debate. CONTENTS* 1 News articles * 1.1 Elements of a news article * 1.1.1 Headline
Headline
* 1.1.2 Byline * 1.1.3 Lead * 1.1.4 Body or running text * 1.1.5 Conclusion * 1.2 Characteristics of well-written news articles * 1.3 Authorship * 2 Other types of articles * 3 See also * 4 Notes NEWS ARTICLES See also: News style A NEWS ARTICLE discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers ) or of a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines , club newsletters, or technology news websites). A news article can include accounts of eyewitnesses to the happening event. It can contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls, debates on the topic, etc
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Essay
An ESSAY is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article , a pamphlet , and a short story . Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner), humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc. Essays are commonly used as literary criticism , political manifestos , learned arguments , observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose , but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope 's _ An Essay on Criticism _ and _ An Essay on Man _)
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Poetry
POETRY (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, _poiesis _, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language —such as phonaesthetics , sound symbolism , and metre —to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning . Poetry
Poetry
has a long history , dating back to the Sumerian _Epic of Gilgamesh _. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese _ Shijing
Shijing
_, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit _ Vedas
Vedas
_, Zoroastrian _ Gathas _, and the Homeric epics, the _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and the _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
's _ Poetics _, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric , drama , song and comedy
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Lyrics
LYRICS are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses . The writer of lyrics is a lyricist . The words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however, usually known as a "libretto " and their writer, as a "librettist ". The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form , articulation , meter , and symmetry of expression. Rappers can also create lyrics (often with a variation of rhyming words) that are meant to be spoken rhythmically rather than sung. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Poems as lyrics * 3 Shifter * 4 Copyright and royalties * 5 Academic study * 6 Search engines * 6.1 Riskiest search * 6.2 Lyrics in Google search results * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY A lyrist on the Standard of Ur , c. 2500 BC
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Fiction
FICTION is the classification for any story or setting that is imaginary —in other words, not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including writings , live performances , films , television programs , animations , video games , and role-playing games , though the term originally and most commonly refers to the narrative forms of literature (see _literary_ fiction ), including novels , novellas , short stories , and plays . Fiction is occasionally used in its narrowest sense to mean simply any "literary narrative". A work of fiction is an act of creative imagination, so its total faithfulness to reality is not typically assumed by its audience. Therefore, fiction is not expected to present only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually accurate. Instead, the context of fiction, not adhering precisely to the real world, is generally open to interpretation
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Nonfiction
NON-FICTION or NONFICTION is content (sometimes, in the form of a story ) whose creator, in good faith , assumes responsibility for the truth or accuracy of the events, people, or information presented. In contrast, a story whose creator explicitly leaves open if and how the work refers to reality is usually classified as fiction . Nonfiction, which may be presented either objectively or subjectively , is traditionally one of the two main divisions of narratives (and, specifically, prose writing), the other traditional division being fiction , which contrasts with nonfiction by dealing in information, events, and characters expected to be partly or largely imaginary. Nonfiction's specific factual assertions and descriptions may or may not be accurate, and can give either a true or a false account of the subject in question
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It Was The Best Of Times, It Was The Worst Of Times
A TALE OF TWO CITIES (1859) is a novel by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, set in London
London
and Paris
Paris
before and during the French Revolution . The novel tells the story of the French Doctor Manette, his 18-year-long imprisonment in the Bastille
Bastille
in Paris
Paris
and his release to life in London
London
with his daughter Lucie, whom he had never met; Lucie's marriage and the collision between her beloved husband and the people who caused her father's imprisonment; and Monsieur and Madame Defarge, sellers of wine in a poor suburb of Paris. The story is set against the conditions that led up to the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror
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Yes (novel)
YES is a novel by Thomas Bernhard , originally published in German in 1978 and translated into English by Ewald Osers in 1992. CONTENTS * 1 Plot summary * 2 Excerpt * 3 Notes * 4 References PLOT SUMMARY Characters: 1. The narrator, a scientist 2. Moritz, an estate agent , and his family 3. A Swiss
Swiss
engineer 4. His wife, a Persian born in Shiraz
Shiraz
This novel is about suicide , a topic that permeates overtly or covertly all of Bernhard’s work. A Persian woman is the central character of narration, and the narrator prepares for her suicide by his own preoccupation with suicide . This motif of the surrogate victim is clearly established in the novel's opening sentence (see excerpt below) , where the narrator describes himself as in the process of "dumping" his problems on his friend Moritz
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Moby-Dick
MOBY-DICK; OR, THE WHALE is a novel by American writer Herman Melville , published in 1851 during the period of the American Renaissance . Sailor Ishmael tells the story of the obsessive quest of Ahab , captain of the whaler the Pequod , for revenge on Moby Dick , the white whale that on the previous whaling voyage bit off Ahab's leg at the knee. The novel was a commercial failure and out of print at the time of the author's death in 1891, but during the 20th century, its reputation as a Great American Novel
Novel
was established. William Faulkner confessed he wished he had written it himself, and D. H. Lawrence called it "one of the strangest and most wonderful books in the world", and "the greatest book of the sea ever written". "Call me Ishmael" is among world literature's most famous opening sentences
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Fairy Tales
A FAIRY TALE is a type of short story that typically features folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarfs , dragons , elves , fairies , giants , gnomes , goblins , griffins , mermaids , talking animals , trolls , unicorns , or witches , and usually magic or enchantments . Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables . The term is mainly used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children\'s literature . In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) or "fairy tale romance ", though not all fairy tales end happily
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