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Open Standard
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process). There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage. The terms open and standard have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including the openness of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard
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Technical Standard
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard. A technical standard may be developed privately or unilaterally, for example by a corporation, regulatory body, military, etc. Standards can also be developed by groups such as trade unions, and trade associations. Standards organizations
Standards organizations
often have more diverse input and usually develop voluntary standards: these might become mandatory if adopted by a government (i.e
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WWW
The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.[1] English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
in 1989
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World Wide Web Consortium
ERCIM, France; Keio University/SFC, Japan; Beihang University, China[1] and many other offices around the worldRegion servedWorldwideMembership474 member organizations[2]DirectorTim Berners-LeeStaff62Website www.w3.orgThe World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or W3). Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web
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Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext
Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext
Hypertext
is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
at CERN
CERN
in 1989. Standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs)
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HyperText Markup Language
Hypertext
Hypertext
Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript, it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.[4] Web browsers receive HTML
HTML
documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML
HTML
describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. HTML
HTML
elements are the building blocks of HTML
HTML
pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects such as interactive forms may be embedded into the rendered page. HTML
HTML
provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items
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Cascading Style Sheets
Cascading Style Sheets
Cascading Style Sheets
(CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.[1] Although most often used to set the visual style of web pages and user interfaces written in HTML
HTML
and XHTML, the language can be applied to any XML
XML
document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL, and is applicable to rendering in speech, or on other media
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Web Accessibility Initiative
The World Wide Web Consortium
World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C)'s Web Accessibility
Accessibility
Initiative (WAI) is an effort to improve the accessibility of the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) for people with disabilities. People with disabilities may encounter difficulties when using computers generally, but also on the Web. Since people with disabilities often require non-standard devices and browsers, making websites more accessible also benefits a wide range of user agents and devices, including mobile devices, which have limited resources. The W3C launched the Web Accessibility
Accessibility
Initiative in 1997 with endorsement by The White House and W3C members.[1][2] It has several working groups and interest groups that work on guidelines, technical reports, educational materials and other documents that relate to the several different components of web accessibility
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Free Software Foundation Europe
The Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
Europe (FSFE) was founded in 2001 to support all aspects of the free software movement in Europe. FSFE is a charitable registered association (eingetragener Verein) under German law, and has registered 'chapters' in several European countries.[2] It is an official European sister organization of the US-based Free Software Foundation (FSF). FSF and FSFE are financially and legally separate entities. FSFE believes that access to and control of software determines who may participate in a digital society
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European Interoperability Framework
The 'European Interoperability Framework' (EIF) is a set of recommendations which specify how Administrations, Businesses and Citizens communicate with each other within the EU and across Member States borders. The EIF 1.0 was issued under the Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services to public Administrations, Businesses and Citizens programme (IDABC)
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Foundation For A Free Information Infrastructure
The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure
Free Information Infrastructure
(FFII) is a non-profit organisation based in Munich, Germany, dedicated to establishing a free market in information technology, by the removal of barriers to competition. The FFII played a key organisational role and was very active in the campaign which resulted in the rejection of the EU software patent directive in July 2005. CNET
CNET
awarded the FFII the Outstanding contribution to software development award for this work, which was the result of years of research, policy, and action.[1] After the July 2005 victory, FFII has continued to defend a free and competitive software market by working towards adequate patent systems and open standards
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Industry Standard Architecture
Industry Standard Architecture
Industry Standard Architecture
(ISA) is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM
IBM
PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286
80286
and its immediate successors during the 1980s. The bus was (largely) backward compatible with the 8-bit bus of the 8088-based IBM PC, including the IBM
IBM
PC/XT as well as IBM
IBM
PC compatibles. Originally referred to as the PC/AT-bus it was also termed I/O Channel by IBM. The ISA concept was coined by competing PC-clone manufacturers in the late 1980s or early 1990s as a reaction to IBM
IBM
attempts to replace the AT-bus with its new and incompatible Micro Channel architecture. The 16-bit ISA bus was also used with 32-bit processors for several years
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Embrace, Extend And Extinguish
"Embrace, extend, and extinguish",[1] also known as "Embrace, extend, and exterminate",[2] is a phrase that the U.S
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Peripheral Component Interconnect
Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer. PCI is the initialism for Peripheral Component Interconnect[2] and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard. The PCI bus supports the functions found on a processor bus but in a standardized format that is independent of any particular processor's native bus. Devices connected to the PCI bus appear to a bus master to be connected directly to its own bus and are assigned addresses in the processor's address space[3]. It is a parallel bus, synchronous to a single bus clock. Attached devices can take either the form of an integrated circuit fitted onto the motherboard itself (called a planar device in the PCI specification) or an expansion card that fits into a slot. The PCI Local Bus was first implemented in IBM PC compatibles, where it displaced the combination of several slow ISA slots and one fast VESA Local Bus slot as the bus configuration
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Accelerated Graphics Port
The Accelerated Graphics Port
Accelerated Graphics Port
(AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. It was originally designed as a successor to PCI-type connections for video cards
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DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM, also called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and DDR4 SDRAM. None of its successors are forward or backward compatible with DDR1 SDRAM, meaning DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 memory modules will not work in DDR1-equipped motherboards, and vice versa. Compared to single data rate (SDR) SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations often have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy.[1][2] The interface uses double pumping (transferring data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal) to double data bus bandwidth without a corresponding increase in clock frequency
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