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Once Upon A Time
"ONCE UPON A TIME" is a stock phrase used to introduce a narrative of past events, typically in fairy tales and folk tales. It has been used in some form since at least 1380 (according to the Oxford English Dictionary ) in storytelling in the English language
English language
and has opened many oral narratives since 1600. These stories often then end with "and they all lived happily ever after ", or, originally, "happily until their deaths". The phrase is particularly common in fairy tales for younger children, where it is almost always the opening line of a tale. It was commonly used in the original translations of the stories of Charles Perrault as a translation for the French "il était une fois", of Hans Christian Andersen as a translation for the Danish "der var engang", (literally "there was once"), the Brothers Grimm as a translation for the German "es war einmal" (literally "it was once") and Joseph Jacobs in English translations and fairy tales. The phrase is also frequently used in such oral stories as retellings of myths , fables , folklore and children's literature. CONTENTS * 1 Other languages * 2 Modern variants * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 References * 6 External links OTHER LANGUAGESThe "story-starting phrase" is a common feature of many languages
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Stock Phrase
A CLICHé or CLICHE (/ˈkliːʃeɪ/ or /klɪˈʃeɪ/ ) is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology , the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage . The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea that is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. Typically pejorative, "clichés" may or may not be true. Some are stereotypes , but some are simply truisms and facts . Clichés often are employed for comic effect, typically in fiction. Most phrases now considered clichéd originally were regarded as striking, but have lost their force through overuse. The French poet Gérard de Nerval once said, "The first man who compared woman to a rose was a poet, the second, an imbecile." A cliché is often a vivid depiction of an abstraction that relies upon analogy or exaggeration for effect, often drawn from everyday experience. Used sparingly, it may succeed, but the use of a cliché in writing, speech, or argument is generally considered a mark of inexperience or a lack of originality
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Oxford English Dictionary
The _OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY_ (_OED_) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of _A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society_. In 1895, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ (_OED_) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988
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Storytelling
STORYTELLING is the social and cultural activity of sharing stories , often with improvisation , theatrics , or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment , education, cultural preservation and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot , characters and narrative point of view . The term 'storytelling' is used in a narrow sense to refer specifically to oral storytelling and also in a looser sense to refer to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Happy Ending
A HAPPY ENDING is an ending of the plot of a work of fiction in which almost everything turns out for the best for the protagonists , their sidekicks , and almost everyone except the villains . In storylines where the protagonists are in physical danger , a happy ending mainly consists in their surviving and successfully concluding their quest or mission. Where there is no physical danger, a happy ending may be lovers consummating their love despite various factors which may have thwarted it. A considerable number of storylines combine both situations. In Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
's version of "War of the Worlds ", the happy ending consists of three distinct elements: The protagonists all survive the countless perils of their journey; humanity as a whole survives the alien invasion; and the protagonist father regains the respect of his estranged children. The plot is so constructed that all three are needed for the audience's feeling of satisfaction in the end. A happy ending is epitomized in the standard fairy tale ending phrase, "HAPPILY EVER AFTER" or "and they lived happily ever after". ( One Thousand and One Nights has the more restrained formula "they lived happily until there came to them the One who Destroys all Happiness" (i.e
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Fairy Tale
A FAIRY TALE is a type of short story that typically features folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarfs , dragons , elves , fairies , giants , gnomes , goblins , griffins , mermaids , talking animals , trolls , unicorns , or witches , and usually magic or enchantments . Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables . The term is mainly used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children\'s literature . In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) or "fairy tale romance ", though not all fairy tales end happily. Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story or tall tale ; it is used especially of any story that not only is not true, but could not possibly be true. Legends are perceived as real; fairy tales may merge into legends , where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth. However, unlike legends and epics , they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, people, and events; they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times
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Opening Sentence
At the beginning of a written work stands the OPENING SENTENCE. The opening line is part or all of the opening sentence that may start the lead paragraph . For older texts the Latin term "incipit " (it begins) is in use for the very first words of the opening sentence. As in speech, a personal document such as a letter normally starts with a salutation ; this, however, tends not to be the case in documents , articles , essays , poetry , lyrics , and general works of fiction and nonfiction . In nonfiction, the opening sentence generally points the reader to the subject under discussion directly in a matter-of-fact style. In journalism, the opening line typically sets out the scope of the article. In fiction, authors have much liberty in the way they can cast the beginning. Techniques to hold the reader's attention include keeping the opening sentence to the point, showing attitude, shocking, and being controversial. One of the most famous opening lines, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times ...", starts a sentence of 118 words that draws the reader in by its contradiction; the first sentence of Yes even contains 477 words. "Call me Ishmael " is an example of a short opening sentence. Formulaic openings are generally eschewed, but expected in certain genres, such as fairy tales beginning " Once upon a time ..."
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Charles Perrault
CHARLES PERRAULT (French: ; 12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie Française
Académie Française
. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre , the fairy tale , with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales . The best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon Rouge ( Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
), Cendrillon ( Cinderella
Cinderella
), Le Chat Botté ( Puss in Boots ), La Belle au bois Dormant (The Sleeping Beauty ), and Barbe Bleue ( Bluebeard ). Some of Perrault's versions of old stories have influenced the German versions published by the Brothers Grimm more than 100 years later. The stories continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet (such as Tchaikovsky 's The Sleeping Beauty ), theatre, and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, and was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns . CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Fairy tales * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE AND WORKPerrault was born in Paris
Paris
to a wealthy bourgeois family, the seventh child of Pierre Perrault and Paquette Le Clerc
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Hans Christian Andersen
HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN (/ˈhɑːnz ˈkrɪstʃən ˈændərsən/ ; Danish: ( listen ), often referred to in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as H. C. ANDERSEN, (2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues , novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales . Andersen's popularity is not limited to children; his stories, called eventyr in Danish , express themes that transcend age and nationality. Andersen's fairy tales, of which no less than 3381 works have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness, readily accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well. Some of his most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor\'s New Clothes ," "The Little Mermaid ," "The Nightingale ," " The Snow Queen ," " The Ugly Duckling , " Thumbelina " and many others. His stories have inspired ballets, plays, and animated and live-action films. One of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
's widest and most busy boulevards is labeled "H.C
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Danish Language
DANISH /ˈdeɪnᵻʃ/ (_ listen ) (dansk_ pronounced (_ listen ); dansk sprog_, ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany , where it has minority language status. There are also minor Danish-speaking communities in Norway , Sweden , Spain , the United States , Canada , Brazil and Argentina . Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their home language . Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse , the common language of the Germanic peoples that lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic . A more recent classification based on mutual intelligibility separates modern spoken Danish, Norwegian and Swedish as _Mainland Scandinavian_ while Icelandic and Faroese are classified as _Insular Scandinavian_
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Brothers Grimm
The BROTHERS GRIMM (_die Brüder Grimm_ or _die Gebrüder Grimm_), Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century. They were among the best-known storytellers of folk tales, and popularized stories such as " Cinderella " ("Aschenputtel"), "The Frog Prince " ("Der Froschkönig"), " The Goose-Girl " ("Die Gänsemagd"), " Hansel and Gretel " ("Hänsel und Gretel"), "Rapunzel ", " Rumpelstiltskin " ("Rumpelstilzchen"), " Sleeping Beauty " ("Dornröschen"), and " Snow White " ("Schneewittchen"). Their first collection of folk tales, _Children\'s and Household Tales _ (_Kinder- und Hausmärchen_), was published in 1812. The brothers spent their formative years in the German town of Hanau . Their father's death in 1796 impoverished the family and affected the brothers for many years after. They attended the University of Marburg where they developed a curiosity about German folklore, which grew into a lifelong dedication to collecting German folk tales. The rise of Romanticism during the 19th century revived interest in traditional folk stories, which to the brothers represented a pure form of national literature and culture
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Joseph Jacobs
JOSEPH JACOBS (29 August 1854 – 30 January 1916) was an Australian folklorist , literary critic, social scientist, historian and writer of English literature who became a notable collector and publisher of English folklore . His work went on to popularize some of the world's best known versions of English fairy tales including "Jack and the Beanstalk ", "Goldilocks and the three bears ", "The Three Little Pigs ", " Jack the Giant Killer
Jack the Giant Killer
" and "The History of Tom Thumb ". He published his English fairy tale collections: English Fairy Tales
Fairy Tales
in 1890 and More English Fairy Tales
Fairy Tales
in 1893 but also went on after and in between both books to publish fairy tales collected from continental Europe as well as Jewish, Celtic and Indian fairytales which made him one of the most popular writers of fairytales for the English language. Jacobs was also an editor for journals and books on the subject of folklore which included editing the Fables of Bidpai and the Fables of Aesop , as well as articles on the migration of Jewish folklore. He also edited editions of The Thousand and One Nights . He went on to join The Folklore Society in England and became an editor of the society journal Folklore. Joseph Jacobs
Joseph Jacobs
also contributed to The Jewish Encyclopedia
The Jewish Encyclopedia

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