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Om Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Symbology (other)
Symbology concerns the study of symbols. Symbology may also refer to: Social sciences[edit]Semiotics, study of signs and symbols Iconography, branch of art history which studies images Symbolic system, used in the field of anthropology, sociology, and psychology to refer to a system of interconnected symbolic meanings Symbolic anthropology, diverse set of approaches within cultural anthropology that view culture as a symbolic system that arises primarily from human interpretations of the world Symbolism (other), use of symbols to represent ideas and emotionsEntertainment[edit]Symbology, a players special ability in the Star Ocean: Till the End of Time video game Symbology, a fictional academic discipline of which Angels and Demons character Robert Langdon
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False Etymologies
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology,[1] pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the latter is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word. Such etymologies often have the feel of urban legends, and can be much more colorful and fanciful than the typical etymologies found in dictionaries, often involving stories of unusual practices in particular subcultures (e.g
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Learning
Learning
Learning
is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.[1] The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines, and there is also evidence for some kind of learning in some plants.[2] Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e.g. being burned by a hot stove), but much skill and knowledge accumulates from repeated experiences. The changes induced by learning often last a lifetime, and it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be "lost" from that which cannot be retrieved.[3] Human learning begins before birth and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between person and environment. The nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many fields, including educational psychology, neuropsychology, experimental psychology, and pedagogy
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Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Freud
(/frɔɪd/ FROYD;[3] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.[4] Freud
Freud
was born to Galician Jewish
Jewish
parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[5][6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[7] Freud
Freud
lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud
Freud
left Austria to escape the Nazis
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Condensation (psychology)
In Freudian psychology, a condensation (German: Verdichtung) is when a single idea (an image, memory, or thought) or dream object stands for several associations and ideas; thus "dreams are brief, meagre and laconic in comparison with the range and wealth of the dream-thoughts." The charges are displaced from the originating ideas to the receiving one, where they merge and "condense" together. In the 1950s the concept was used by linguist Roman Jakobson
Roman Jakobson
in his influential lecture on metaphor and metonymy. Jakobson's lecture led Jacques Lacan
Jacques Lacan
to say that the unconscious is structured like a language. See also[edit]Cathexis Complex (psychology) Dream interpretation Priming (psychology) Mental representationReferences[edit] Alain de Mijolla (ed.)
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Displacement (psychology)
In Freudian psychology, displacement (German: Verschiebung, "shift, move") is an unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals felt in their original form to be dangerous or unacceptable.[1] A term originating with Sigmund Freud,[2] displacement operates in the mind unconsciously, its transference of emotions, ideas, or wishes being most often used to allay anxiety in the face of aggressive or sexual impulses.Contents1 Freud 2 The psychoanalytic mainstream 3 Lacan 4 Aggression 5 Transferential displacement 6 Criticism 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksFreud[edit] Freud initially saw displacement as a means of dream-distortion, involving a shift of emphasis from important to unimportant elements,[3] or the replacement of something by a mere illusion.[4] Freud also saw displacement as occurring in jokes,[5] as well as in neuroses – the obsessional neurotic being especially prone to the
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The Interpretation Of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams
(German: Die Traumdeutung) is an 1899 book by the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, and discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism very literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."[1] The book was first published in an edition of 600 copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams
later gained in popularity, and seven more editions were published in Freud's lifetime.[2] Because of the book's length and complexity, Freud also wrote an abridged version called On Dreams
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Jean Dalby Clift
Jean Dalby Clift, an Episcopal priest and pastoral counselor in private practice, is the author of several books in the fields of psychology and spirituality. "Dr. Clift has had many roles in her life, including lawyer, spiritual director, pastoral counselor, author, lecturer, workshop presenter, priest, mother, grandmother, and poet."[1] She has lectured and given workshops in the United States, Australia, Europe, Asia and Africa on such topics as pastoral counseling, prayer, spiritual growth, journaling, pilgrimage, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Three of her five books are co-authored with her husband, the Reverend Wallace Clift.[2]Contents1 Early career and education 2 Academic career 3 Pastoral counseling and ministry 4 Publications4.1 Books 4.2 Articles 4.3 Poems and prayers 4.4 Encyclopedia entries5 ReferencesEarly career and education[edit] Born February 21, 1930, in Texas, Clift received a B.A. (1950) and J.D
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Paul Tillich
Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant
Protestant
theologian who is widely regarded as one of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century.[2] Among the general public, he is best known for his works The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith
Faith
(1957), which introduced issues of theology and modern culture to a general readership
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Meaning (non-linguistic)
A non-linguistic meaning is an actual or possible derivation from sentence, which is not associated with signs that have any original or primary intent of communication.[clarification needed what?] It is a general term of art used to capture a number of different senses of the word "meaning", independently from its linguistic uses.Contents1 Meaning as internal interpretation 2 Semantic meaning 3 Natural meaning3.1 Consequences and meaning4 Meaning and cognition 5 Ideasthesia 6 NotesMeaning as internal interpretation[edit] The sense that sentient creatures have that the various objects of our universe are linked is commonly referred to as a person's sense of "meaning". This is the sense of meaning at work when asking a person when they leave a theater, "What did that movie mean to you?" In short, the word "meaning" can sometimes be used to describe the interpretations that people have of the world. Example: "Chunks are pieces of information linked and bound by meaning
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History
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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Intent (law)
In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime. A more formal, generally synonymous legal term is scienter: intent or knowledge of wrongdoing.Contents1 Definitions 2 The test of intent 3 Offenses of basic and of specific intent 4 Direct intent and oblique intent 5 Unconditional intent and conditional intent 6 Purpose intent and knowledge intent 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 ReferencesDefinitions[edit] Intent is defined in Canadian law by the ruling in R v Mohan (1994) as "the decision to bring about a prohibited consequence." A range of words represents shades of intent in criminal laws around the world
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Law Enforcement Agency
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are usually called police services
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Homo Sapiens
H. s. sapiens†H. s. idaltu†H. s. neanderthalensis(?) †H. s. rhodesiensis(?)(others proposed) Homo
Homo
sapiens is the only extant human species. The name is Latin
Latin
for "wise man" and was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(who is himself the lectotype for the species). Extinct species of the genus Homo
Homo
include Homo
Homo
erectus, extant during roughly 1.9 to 0.4 million years ago, and a number of other species (by some authors considered subspecies of either H. sapiens or H. erectus). The age of speciation of H
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Armed Services
A military is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army, Navy, Air Force, and in certain countries the Marines
Marines
and Coast Guard. The task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking
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