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Olive Oil
Olive
Olive
oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. There is limited evidence of its possible health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are wheat and grapes. Olive
Olive
trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain
Spain
is the largest producer of olive oil, followed by Italy
Italy
and Greece. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain, Italy, and Morocco
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Fuel
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity
Specific gravity
is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water at its densest (at 4 °C or 39.2 °F); for gases it is air at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). A US Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate tests the specific gravity of JP-5 fuel Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry
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Mediterranean Basin
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation. The Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
is the Old World
Old World
region where olive trees grow.[2]Contents1 Geography 2 Geology and paleoclimatology 3 Flora and fauna 4 Ecoregions 5 History 6 Agriculture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksGeography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Tree Fruit
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term 'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts. The scientific study and the cultivation of fruits is called pomology, which divides fruits into groups based on plant morphology and anatomy
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Wheat
References:   Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22 Wheat
Wheat
is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.[1][2][3] There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around 9600 BCE
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Grapes
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil
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Peroxide Value
Detection of peroxide gives the initial evidence of rancidity in unsaturated fats and oils. Other methods are available, but peroxide value is the most widely used. It gives a measure of the extent to which an oil sample has undergone primary oxidation, extent of secondary oxidation may be determined from p-anisidine test.[1] The double bonds found in fats and oils play a role in autoxidation. Oils with a high degree of unsaturation are most susceptible to autoxidation. The best test for autoxidation (oxidative rancidity) is determination of the peroxide value
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Cultivar
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Acid Value
In chemistry, acid value (or neutralization number or acid number or acidity) is the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in milligrams that is required to neutralize one gram of chemical substance.[1] The acid number is a measure of the number of carboxylic acid groups in a chemical compound, such as a fatty acid, or in a mixture of compounds. In a typical procedure, a known amount of sample dissolved in an organic solvent (often isopropanol) and titrated with a solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) of known concentration using phenolphthalein as a color indicator. The acid number is used to quantify the acidity of a substance e.g. biodiesel
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Ionia
Ionia
Ionia
(Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League
Ionian League
of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia
Ionia
proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea
Phocaea
in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus (now the Gediz), to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, and included the islands of Chios
Chios
and Samos
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Neolithic
PaleolithicLower PaleolithicEarly Stone Age Homo Control of fire Stone tools Middle PaleolithicMiddle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans Upper PaleolithicLater Stone Age Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic<
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Poise (unit)
The poise (symbol P; /pɔɪz, pwɑːz/) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.[1] It is named after Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille (see Hagen– Poiseuille equation). 1   P = 0.1   kg ⋅ m − 1 ⋅ s − 1 = 1   g ⋅ cm − 1 ⋅ s − 1 = 1   dyne &
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Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west
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Ancient Greece
History
History
of the world · Ancient maritime history Protohistory · Axial Age · Iron Age Historiography · Ancient literature Ancient warfare · Cradle of civilization Category PortalFollowed by Post-classical historyvte Ancient Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ἑλλάς, translit. Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600)
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Pharmaceuticals
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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