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Oligonucleotide
Oligonucleotides are short DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics. Commonly made in the laboratory by solid-phase chemical synthesis, these small bits of nucleic acids can be manufactured as single-stranded molecules with any user-specified sequence, and so are vital for artificial gene synthesis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA
DNA
sequencing, library construction and as molecular probes. In nature, oligonucleotides are usually found as small RNA
RNA
molecules that function in the regulation of gene expression (e.g. microRNA), or are degradation intermediates derived from the breakdown of larger nucleic acid molecules. Oligonucleotides are characterized by the sequence of nucleotide residues that make up the entire molecule
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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RNase H
Ribonuclease
Ribonuclease
H (abbreviated RNase H
RNase H
or RNH) is a family of non-sequence-specific endonuclease enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of RNA
RNA
in an RNA/ DNA
DNA
substrate via a hydrolytic mechanism. Members of the RNase H
RNase H
family can be found in nearly all organisms, from bacteria to archaea to eukaryotes. The family is divided into evolutionarily related groups with slightly different substrate preferences, broadly designated ribonuclease H1 and H2.[2] The human genome encodes both H1 and H2
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Nucleoside
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase (also termed a nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In a nucleoside, the base is bound to either ribose or deoxyribose via a beta-glycosidic linkage. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine. Biological function[edit] While a nucleoside is a nucleobase linked to a sugar, a nucleotide is composed of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups
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High-performance Liquid Chromatography
High-performance liquid chromatography
High-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material. Each component in the sample interacts slightly differently with the adsorbent material, causing different flow rates for the different components and leading to the separation of the components as they flow out the column. HPLC has been used for manufacturing (e.g
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Antisense RNA
Antisense RNA
RNA
(asRNA), also referred to as antisense transcript,[1] natural antisense transcript (NAT)[2][3][4] or antisense oligonucleotide,[5] is a single stranded RNA
RNA
that is complementary to a protein coding messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) with which it hybridizes, and thereby blocks its translation into protein. asRNAs occur naturally in nature and have been found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes[1] and belongs to a subtype of long noncoding RNA
RNA
(lncRNA) that is larger than 200 nucleotides.[4] The primary function of as RNA
RNA
is regulating gene expression. asRNAs may also be produced synthetically and have found wide spread use as research tools for gene knockdown
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Translation (biology)
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA
DNA
to RNA
RNA
in the cell's nucleus. The entire process is called gene expression. In translation, messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is decoded in a ribosome, outside the nucleus, to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary t RNA
RNA
anticodon sequences to m RNA
RNA
codons. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the m RNA
RNA
passes through and is "read" by the ribosome. Translation proceeds in three phases:Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA
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Messenger RNA
Messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is a large family of RNA
RNA
molecules that convey genetic information from DNA
DNA
to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript m RNA
RNA
(known as pre-mRNA) into processed, mature mRNA. This mature m RNA
RNA
is then translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology. As in DNA, m RNA
RNA
genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis
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Non-coding RNA
A non-coding RNA
RNA
(ncRNA) is an RNA
RNA
molecule that is not translated into a protein. The DNA
DNA
sequence from which a functional non-coding RNA
RNA
is transcribed is often called an RNA
RNA
gene
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Vertebrates
Fire salamander
Fire salamander
(Amphibia), saltwater crocodile (Reptilia), southern cassowary (Aves), black-and-rufous giant elephant shrew (Mammalia), ocean sunfish (Osteichthyes)Scientific classification Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: CraniataSubphylum: Vertebrata J-B
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Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity. It was developed by biomedical researchers in the early 1980s[1] and is used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. Fluorescence microscopy
Fluorescence microscopy
can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA
DNA
for use in genetic counseling, medicine, and species identification.[2] FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA) in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples
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Developmental Biology
Developmental biology
Developmental biology
is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop
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Gene Expression
Gene
Gene
expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA
RNA
(snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA
RNA
splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene
Gene
regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism
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Spermine
Spermine
Spermine
is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells. The precursor for synthesis of spermine is the amino acid ornithine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at physiological pH
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Polymorphism (biology)
Polymorphism[1] in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species. To be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population (one with random mating).[2] Three mechanisms may cause polymorphism:[3] Genetic polymorphism – where the phenotype of each individual is genetically determined A conditional development strategy, where the phenotype of each individual is set by environmental cues A mixed development strategy, where the phenotype is randomly assigned during developmentPolymorphism as used in zoology and biology involves morphs of the phenotype, and the term polyphenism can be used to clarify that the different forms arise from the same genotype
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CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (or CpG ODN) are short single-stranded synthetic DNA
DNA
molecules that contain a cytosine triphosphate deoxynucleotide ("C") followed by a guanine triphosphate deoxynucleotide ("G"). The "p" refers to the phosphodiester link between consecutive nucleotides, although some ODN have a modified phosphorothioate (PS) backbone instead
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