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Old Saxon
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language
Germanic language
and the earliest recorded form of Low German
Low German
(spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe). It is a West Germanic language, closely related to the Anglo-Frisian
Anglo-Frisian
languages.[2] It has been documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it gradually evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany, primarily in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands
Netherlands
by Saxons, a Germanic tribe who inhabited the region of Saxony
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Dialect Continuum
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible. That happens, for example, across large parts of India
India
(the Indo-Aryan languages) or the Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic). Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal, southern Belgium (Wallonia) and southern Italy
Italy
(Western Romance languages) and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
(German dialects). Leonard Bloomfield used the name dialect area.[1] Charles F
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Inflection
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc, as declension. An inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with a prefix, suffix or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change.[2] For example, the Latin
Latin
verb ducam, meaning "I will lead", includes the suffix -am, expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense (future). The use of this suffix is an inflection
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Luxembourgish Language
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish[3] (/ˈlʌksəmˌbɜːrɡɪʃ/)[3] or Letzeburgesch[4] (/ˌlɛtsbɜːrˈɡɛʃ, -sə-/ or /ˈlɛtsˌbɜːrɡɪʃ, -sə-/)[4] (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
worldwide.[1] While it could be considered a standardized variety (i.e., a dialect with a written form) of German, its official use in the state of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the existence of a separate regulatory body[5] has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of the Dachsprache Standard German
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Nominative
The nominative case (abbreviated NOM), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments
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Low Franconian Languages
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Dutch: Nederfrankisch, German: Niederfränkisch, French: Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa
South Africa
and Namibia
Namibia
that originally descended from Old Frankish.Contents1 Frankish language1.1 Development2 Development of Dutch 3 Modern Low Franconian languages3.1 Dutch 3.2 Meuse-Rhenish 3.3 Afrikaans4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further readingFrankish language[edit] Main article: Frankish language The Frankish language, also "Old Frankish", was the language of the Franks. It is a West Germanic language and was spoken in Merovingian times, preceding the 7th century
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Accusative
The accusative case (abbreviated acc) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually used together (such as in Latin) with the nominative case. For example, "they" in English is nominative; "them" is accusative. The sentence "They like them" shows the nominative case and accusative case working in conjunction using the same base word
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Genitive
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated gen;[1] also called the second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. It often marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun.[2] However, it can also indicate various relationships other than possession: certain verbs may take arguments in the genitive case, and it may have adverbial uses (see Adverbial genitive). Placing the modifying noun in the genitive case is one way to indicate that two nouns are related in a genitive construction. Modern English typically does not morphologically mark nouns for a genitive case in order to indicate a genitive construction; instead, it uses either the 's clitic or a preposition (usually of). However, the personal pronouns do have distinct possessive forms. There are various other ways to indicate a genitive construction, as well
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Dative Case
The dative case (abbreviated dat, or sometimes d when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobo potum dedit", Latin
Latin
for "Maria gave Jacob a drink". In these examples, the dative marks what would be considered the indirect object of a verb in English. Sometimes the dative has functions unrelated to giving. In Scottish Gaelic and Irish, the term dative case is used in traditional grammars to refer to the prepositional case-marking of nouns following simple prepositions and the definite article. In Georgian, the dative case also marks the subject of the sentence with some verbs and some tenses. This is called the dative construction. The dative was common among early Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and has survived to the present in the Balto-Slavic branch and the Germanic branch, among others
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Grammatical Number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").[2] In many languages, including English, the number categories are singular and plural. Some languages also have a dual, trial, and paucal number or other arrangements. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun. The word "number" is also used in linguistics to describe the distinction between certain grammatical aspects that indicate the number of times an event occurs, such as the semelfactive aspect, the iterative aspect, etc
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Americas
Largest metropolitan areas Largest citiesList1.São Paulo 2.Lima 3. Mexico
Mexico
City 4.New York City 5.Bogotá 6.Rio de Janeiro 7.Santiago 8.Los Angeles 9.Caracas 10.Buenos AiresCIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projectionThe Americas
Americas
(also collectively called America)[5][6][7] comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[8][9][10] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere[11][12][13][14][15][16] and comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas
Americas
is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St
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Northern Germany
Northern Germany
Germany
(German: Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany. Its exact area is not precisely or consistently defined but varies depending on whether one is taking a linguistic, geographic, socio-cultural or historic standpoint.Contents1 Language 2 Geography 3 Culture 4 Cuisine 5 History 6 Northern German States 7 Major cities 8 See also 9 ReferencesLanguage[edit]Uerdingen line: ich ("I") and ik isoglossNorthern Germany
Germany
generally refers to the Sprachraum area north of the Uerdingen and Benrath line
Benrath line
isoglosses, where Low German
Low German
dialects are spoken
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Plural
The plural (sometimes abbreviated PL), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number. Plural of nouns typically denote a quantity other than the default quantity represented by a noun, which is generally one (the form that represents this default quantity is said to be of singular number). Most commonly, therefore, plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote more than fractional, zero or negative amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat. Words of other types, such as verbs, adjectives and pronouns, also frequently have distinct plural forms, which are used in agreement with the number of their associated nouns. Some languages also have a dual (denoting exactly two of something) or other systems of number categories
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Dual (grammatical Number)
Dual (abbreviated DU) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities (objects or persons) identified by the noun or pronoun acting as a single unit or in unison. Verbs can also have dual agreement forms in these languages. The dual number existed in Proto-Indo-European, persisted in many of its descendants, such as Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Sanskrit, which have dual forms across nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and Gothic, which used dual forms in pronouns and verbs. It can still be found in a few modern Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
such as Scottish Gaelic, Slovenian, and Sorbian
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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