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Old Javanese
OLD JAVANESE is the oldest phase of the Javanese language
Javanese language
that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java
Central Java
and the whole of East Java
East Java
. It has strong Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. While evidence of writing in Java dates to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Tarumanegara inscription" of 450, the oldest example written entirely in Javanese, called the " Sukabumi inscription", is dated March 25, 804. This inscription , located in the district of Pare in the Kediri Regency of East Java, is actually a copy of the original, dated some 120 years earlier; only this copy has been preserved. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (nowadays Srinjing)
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Pallava Script
The PALLAVA SCRIPT, a Brahmic script , was developed under the Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
of Southern India around the 6th century AD. Southeast Asian scripts such as Grantha , Javanese , Kawi , Baybayin , Mon , Burmese , Khmer , Tai Tham , Thai Lao , Sinhalese , and the New Tai Lue alphabets are either direct or indirect derivations from the Kadamba -Pallava alphabet. CONTENTS* 1 Form * 1.1 Consonants * 1.2 Independent Vowels * 2 Bibliography * 3 References * 4 External links FORM Pallava script
Pallava script
at the 8th century Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. The form shown here is based on examples from the 7th century AD. Letters labeled * have uncertain sound value, as they have little occurrence in Southeast Asia
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Kediri Regency
KEDIRI REGENCY is a regency (kabupaten) located in East Java province, Indonesia . It is one of two 'Daerah Tingkat II ' that have the name 'Kediri' (The other is the City of Kediri ). .It covers an area of 1,386.05 km2, and had a population of 1,499,768 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate (as at 2014) is 1,541,897. The capital of the regency is near to the border of Kediri city , just about 200 m. However, several regency government establishments are also located within Kediri city , administratively a distinct political entity. It is because both the regency and the city share common cultural and historical roots. The administrative division occurred only after the War of Independence . The regency shares borders with Jombang Regency to the north, Malang Regency to the east, Blitar Regency and Tulungagung Regency to the south, and Nganjuk Regency to the west, while Kediri city is wholly surrouned within the Regency
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Inscription
EPIGRAPHY is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing ; it is the science of identifying graphemes , clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription
Behistun inscription
is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
engraved on native rock at a location in Iran
Iran
. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians , however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Sukabumi
West Java
West Java
------------------------- HISTORIC RESIDENCY Priangan
Priangan
Residency Buitenzorg Reside
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Retroflex Consonant
A RETROFLEX CONSONANT is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate . They are sometimes referred to as CEREBRAL consonants, especially in Indology . Other terms occasionally encountered are DOMAL and CACUMINAL. The Latin -derived word retroflex means "bent back"; some retroflex consonants are pronounced with the tongue fully curled back so that articulation involves the underside of the tongue tip (subapical ). These sounds are sometimes described as "true" retroflex consonants. However, retroflexes are commonly taken to include other consonants having a similar place of articulation without such extreme curling of the tongue; these may be articulated with the tongue tip (apical ) or the tongue blade (laminal )
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Bandung
BANDUNG (/ˈbɑːndʊŋ/ ) (Sundanese : ᮘᮔ᮪ᮓᮥᮀ, Indonesian : Bandung, Chinese : 萬隆, formerly Dutch : Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java
West Java
province in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 3rd largest metropolitan area with 8,201,928 inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data. It is the nation's third most populous city, with over 2.5 million (2015). Located 768 metres (2,520 feet) above sea level , approximately 140 kilometres (87 miles) south east of Jakarta
Jakarta
, Bandung
Bandung
has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities . The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia
University of Western Australia
, and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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East Java
EAST JAVA (Indonesian : Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese : Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Located in eastern Java
Java
, it includes the island of Madura , which is connected to Java
Java
by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge , as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya
Surabaya
, the second largest city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East java and the largest on the island of Java. It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 38,529,481
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Madura
MADURA is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java
Java
. The island comprises an area of approximately 4,078.67 km² (administratively 5,168 km² including various smaller islands to the east and north). Madura is administered as part of the East Java province. It is separated from Java
Java
by the narrow Strait of Madura . The administered area has a density of 702 people per km², while that of the island itself (3,630,000 people in 2012 count) is higher at 817/km². CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demography * 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Economy * 5 Culture * 5.1 Bull
Bull
racing * 5.2 Music and theater * 5.3 Vessels * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYIn 1624, Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats , a single princely line
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Bali
BALI (Balinese : ᬩᬮᬶ, Indonesian : Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The province includes the island of Bali
Bali
and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida , Nusa Lembongan , and Nusa Ceningan . It is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
, between Java
Java
to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar , is located in the southern part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesia\'s Hindu minority
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related. According to Ethnologue the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities
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