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Old Javanese
OLD JAVANESE is the oldest phase of the Javanese language
Javanese language
that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java
Central Java
and the whole of East Java . It has strong Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. While evidence of writing in Java dates to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Tarumanegara inscription" of 450, the oldest example written entirely in Javanese, called the " Sukabumi
Sukabumi
inscription", is dated March 25, 804. This inscription , located in the district of Pare in the Kediri Regency
Kediri Regency
of East Java, is actually a copy of the original, dated some 120 years earlier; only this copy has been preserved. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (nowadays Srinjing)
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Central-Java
CENTRAL JAVA (Javanese : ꦗꦮꦠꦼꦔꦃ; Indonesian : Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. This province is located in the middle of Java
Java
. Its administrative capital is Semarang
Semarang
. The province is 32,800.69 km2 in area, approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; it the third most populated province in both Java
Java
and Indonesia
Indonesia
after West Java
Java
and East Java
Java

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East-Java
EAST JAVA (Indonesian : Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese : Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Located in eastern Java
Java
, it includes the island of Madura
Madura
, which is connected to Java
Java
by the longest bridge in Indonesia, the Suramadu Bridge
Suramadu Bridge
, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya
Surabaya
, the second largest city in Indonesia
Indonesia
and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java
Java
and the largest on the island of Java
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Madura
MADURA is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java
Java
. The island comprises an area of approximately 4,078.67 km² (administratively 5,168 km² including various smaller islands to the east and north). Madura is administered as part of the East Java province. It is separated from Java
Java
by the narrow Strait of Madura . The administered area has a density of 702 people per km², while that of the island itself (3,630,000 people in 2012 count) is higher at 817/km². CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demography * 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Economy * 5 Culture * 5.1 Bull
Bull
racing * 5.2 Music and theater * 5.3 Vessels * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYIn 1624, Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats , a single princely line
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Bali
BALI (Balinese : ᬩᬮᬶ, Indonesian : _Pulau Bali_, _Provinsi Bali_) is an island and province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The province includes the island of Bali
Bali
and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida , Nusa Lembongan , and Nusa Ceningan . It is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands , between Java
Java
to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar , is located in the southern part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesia\'s Hindu minority . According to the 2010 Census, 83.5% of Bali's population adhered to Balinese Hinduism , followed by 13.4% Muslim
Muslim
, Christianity
Christianity
at 2.5%, and Buddhism
Buddhism
0.5%
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Austronesian Languages
The AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean , with a few members in continental Asia . Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind only the Indo-European languages , the Sino-Tibetan languages , the Niger-Congo languages , and the Afroasiatic languages . It is on par with Indo-European , Niger–Congo , and Afroasiatic as one of the best-established language families. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese , and Filipino (Tagalog ). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family
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Malayo-Polynesian Languages
The MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages , with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo- Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian people of the island nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean , with a smaller number in continental Asia
Asia
. Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam serve as the northwest geographic outlier, going well into the Malay peninsula. On the northernmost geographical outlier does not pass beyond the north of Pattani, which is located in southern Thailand. Malagasy is spoken in the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
located off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean

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Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian Languages
The NUCLEAR MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES are a branch of the Austronesian family , proposed by Wouk and perhaps the Tamanic languages . GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS * Moken language : of the Burmese coast. * Northwest Sumatran languages : of north-central Sumatra and the Mentawai Islands . It is unclear if it includes the Enggano language . * Malayo-Sumbawan languages : of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Vietnam. Includes the Malay language , the Sundanese language
Sundanese language
, and the Balinese language . * Lampungic languages : of southeastern Sumatra
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Kawi Language
KAWI (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: kavi, "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java
Java
, Bali
Bali
, and Lombok
Lombok
, based on Old Javanese , a language with a sizable vocabulary of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanwords . Kawi is the ancestor language of modern Javanese . The name "kawi" is derived from the root ku, which in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means “poet”, and, in derived forms, a “wise, educated man”. The syllabic meter of Kawi poetry is sekar kawi, which means “flowers of the language”, sekar itself deriving from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"SEKHARA" (“garland”). All Javanese languages are hierarchical and stratified, with strict social conventions for appropriate language subsets to be used for one's superiors or social and cultural functions. Kawi is commonly considered the pinnacle language
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, _Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code_, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard , which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages . The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes . The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST LIST is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics . It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia , and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation in the United States. Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list , now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYBetween 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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Glottolog
_GLOTTOLOG_ is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig , Germany. There are two components: _Languoid catalogue_, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and _Langdoc_, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue _ Ethnologue _ in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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Javanese Language
JAVANESE /dʒɑːvəˈniːz/ (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ, basa Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) (colloquially known as ꦕꦫꦗꦮ, cara Jawa; Javanese pronunciation: ) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java
Java
, in Indonesia
Indonesia
. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 98 million people (more than 42% of the total population of Indonesia). Javanese is one of the Austronesian languages , but it is not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify. Its closest relatives are the neighbouring languages such as Sundanese , Madurese and Balinese . Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian , the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians
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Central Java
CENTRAL JAVA (Indonesian : _Jawa Tengah_, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia . This province is located in the middle of Java . Its administrative capital is Semarang . The province is 32,800.69 km2 in area, approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; it the third most populated province in both Java and Indonesia after West Java and East Java . Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes the Special Region and city of Yogyakarta as well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surrounding regencies have formed a separate special region (equivalent to a province) since Indonesian independence , administrated separately
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