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Okazaki, Aichi
OKAZAKI (岡崎市, Okazaki-shi) is a city located in Aichi Prefecture , Japan
Japan
. In 2010, the city had an estimated population of 372,357 and a population density of 991.88 persons per km2. The total area was 387.20 km2 (149.50 sq mi). CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Surrounding municipalities * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 3.1 Language * 4 Transportation * 4.1 Railway * 4.2 Expressways * 4.3 Japan
Japan
National Route * 5 Education * 5.1 Universities and colleges * 5.2 Primary and secondary schools * 6 Local attractions * 6.1 Okazaki Castle * 6.2 Fireworks * 6.3 Hatchō miso * 6.4 Takisan * 7 Twin towns/sister cities * 8 Noted people from Okazaki * 9 References * 10 External links GEOGRAPHYOkazaki is in the coastal plains of southeastern Aichi Prefecture. The ground rises to undulating hills in the former Nukata area to the northeast
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Edo Period
The EDO PERIOD (江戸時代, _ Edo jidai_) or TOKUGAWA PERIOD (徳川時代, _Tokugawa jidai_) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan , when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō . The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu . The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo
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Han (administrative Division)
The HAN (藩, han) or DOMAIN is the Japanese historical term for the estate of a warrior after the 12th century or of a daimyō in the Edo period (1603–1868) and early Meiji period (1868–1912). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Edo period * 3 Meiji period * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References HISTORYIn the Sengoku period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
caused a transformation of the han system. The feudal system based on land became an abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In Japan, a feudal domain was defined in terms of projected annual income. This was different from the feudalism of the West. For example, early Japanologists such as Appert and Papinot made a point of highlighting the annual koku yields which were allocated for the Shimazu clan at Satsuma Domain since the 12th century
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Daimyō
The DAIMYō (大名, IPA: ( listen )) were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period , ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden (名田), meaning private land. Subordinate only to the Shōgun , daimyōs were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyōs of the Edo period , the rank had a long and varied history. The backgrounds of daimyō also varied considerably; while some daimyō clans, notably the Mōri, Shimazu and Hosokawa, were cadet branches of the Imperial family or were descended from the kuge , other daimyō were promoted from the ranks of the samurai, notably during the Edō period
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Matsudaira Clan
The MATSUDAIRA CLAN (松平氏, Matsudaira-shi) was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Minamoto clan . It originated in and took its name from Matsudaira village, in Mikawa Province (modern-day Aichi Prefecture ). Over the course of its history, the clan produced many branches, most of which are also in Mikawa Province. In the 16th century, the main Matsudaira line experienced a meteoric rise to success during the direction of Matsudaira Motoyasu, who changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu and became the first Tokugawa shogun. Ieyasu's line formed what became the Tokugawa clan ; however, the branches retained the Matsudaira surname. Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu, which bore the Matsudaira surname. Some of those branches were also of daimyō status
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Sengoku Period
The SENGOKU PERIOD (戦国時代, _Sengoku jidai_, "Age of Warring States"; c. 1467 – c. 1603) is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China. It is initiated by Ōnin War , which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under Ashikaga shogunate , and came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu
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Yayoi Period
The YAYOI PERIOD (弥生時代, _Yayoi jidai_) is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD. Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period previously classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi. The date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields . A hierarchical social class structure dates from this period. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were also introduced to Japan in this period
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Kofun Period
The KOFUN PERIOD (古墳時代, _ Kofun jidai_) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD. It follows the Yayoi period . The word _kofun _ is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period . The Kofun period is the earliest era of recorded history in Japan; as the chronology of its historical sources tends to be very distorted, studies of this period require deliberate criticism and the aid of archaeology. The Kofun period is divided from the Asuka period by its cultural differences. The Kofun period is characterized by a Shinto culture which existed prior to the introduction of Buddhism
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Kofun
KOFUN (古墳, from Sino-Japanese "ancient grave") are megalithic tombs or tumuli in Japan
Japan
, constructed between the early 3rd century and the early 7th century AD. The term Kofun
Kofun
is the origin of the name of the Kofun period
Kofun period
, which indicates the middle 3rd century to early-middle 6th century. Many Kofun
Kofun
have distinctive keyhole-shaped mounds (zenpō-kōen fun (前方後円墳)), which are unique to ancient Japan
Japan
. The Mozu - Furuichi kofungun or tumulus clusters have been proposed for inscription on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List , while Ishibutai Kofun is one of a number in Asuka-Fujiwara similarly residing on the Tentative List
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Hatago
HATAGO (旅籠) were Edo period
Edo period
lodgings for travelers at shukuba (post stations) along the national highways, including the Edo Five Routes and the subroutes. In addition to a place to rest, hatago also offered meals and other foods to the travelers. They were also called HATAGOYA (旅籠屋). CONTENTS * 1 Name Origin * 2 Preserved Hatago * 2.1 Lodgings * 2.2 Museums * 3 See also * 4 References NAME ORIGIN Hatago means "traveling basket." The word itself originally derived from baskets that contained food for horses and were carried by travelers. From there, it became a tool with which travelers were carry their own food and goods. Shops that began preparing and selling food for travelers gained the suffix ya (屋), meaning "shop," but this was eventually shortened to just hatago
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Tōkaidō (road)
The TōKAIDō ROAD (東海道, "EAST SEA ROAD") was the most important of the Five Routes of the Edo period in Japan
Japan
, connecting Kyoto
Kyoto
to Edo
Edo
(modern-day Tokyo
Tokyo
). Unlike the inland and less heavily travelled Nakasendō
Nakasendō
, the Tōkaidō travelled along the sea coast of eastern Honshū
Honshū
, hence the route's name. CONTENTS * 1 Travelling the Tōkaidō * 2 The Tōkaidō in art and literature * 3 Ōsaka Kaidō * 4 Modern-day Tōkaidō * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TRAVELLING THE TōKAIDōThe standard method of travel was by foot, as wheeled carts were almost nonexistent and heavy cargo was usually sent by boat. Members of the higher class, however, travelled by kago . Women were forbidden to travel alone and had to be accompanied by men
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Imperial Japanese Navy
The IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY (IJN; Kyūjitai : 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai : 大日本帝国海軍 _ Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun (help ·info )_ or 日本海軍 _Nippon Kaigun_, " Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan\'s defeat and surrender in World War II . It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff and the Ministry of the Navy , both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN. The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy (USN)
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Typhoon Vera
TYPHOON VERA, also known as the ISEWAN TYPHOON (伊勢湾台風, Ise-wan Taifū), was an exceptionally intense tropical cyclone that struck Japan in September 1959, becoming the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country. The storm's intensity resulted in damage of unparalleled severity and extent, and was a major setback to the Japanese economy, which was still recovering from World War II. In the aftermath of Vera, Japan's disaster management and relief systems were significantly reformed, and the typhoon's effects would set a benchmark for future storms striking the country. Vera developed on September 20 between Guam
Guam
and Chuuk State , and initially tracked westward before taking a more northerly course, reaching tropical storm strength the following day
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1945 Mikawa Earthquake
The 1945 MIKAWA EARTHQUAKE (三河地震, Mikawa jishin) occurred off Aichi prefecture
Aichi prefecture
, Japan
Japan
at 03:38 AM on January 13. As it occurred during World War II
World War II
, information about the disaster was censored , and efforts at keeping the disaster secret hampered relief efforts and contributed to a high death toll. CONTENTS * 1 Earthquake * 2 Damage * 3 Previous events * 4 See also * 5 References EARTHQUAKEThe Mikawa earthquake's epicenter was offshore in Mikawa Bay at a depth of eleven kilometers. The city of Tsu recorded a magnitude of 6 on the Richter Scale ; however, areas in southern Aichi prefecture were closer to the epicenter, and suffered significant damage
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1944 Tōnankai Earthquake
The 1944 TōNANKAI EARTHQUAKE occurred at 13:35 local time (04:35 UTC ) on 7 December. It had an estimate