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Ogallala Aquifer
The OGALLALA AQUIFER is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains in the United States. One of the world's largest aquifers, it underlies an area of approximately 174,000 sq mi (450,000 km2) in portions of eight states ( South Dakota
South Dakota
, Nebraska
Nebraska
, Wyoming
Wyoming
, Colorado
Colorado
, Kansas
Kansas
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, New Mexico
New Mexico
, and Texas
Texas
). It was named in 1898 by geologist N. H. Darton from its type locality near the town of Ogallala, Nebraska
Nebraska
. The aquifer is part of the High Plains Aquifer System, and rests on the Ogallala Formation , which is the principal geologic unit underlying 80% of the High Plains . Large scale extraction for agricultural purposes started after World War II due partially to center pivot technology and to the adaptation of automotive engines for groundwater wells. Today about 27% of the irrigated land in the entire United States lies over the aquifer, which yields about 30% of the ground water used for irrigation in the United States. The aquifer is at risk for over-extraction and pollution. Since 1950, agricultural irrigation has reduced the saturated volume of the aquifer by an estimated 9%
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United States Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California
. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science
Science
in the Public Service." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 List of USGS directors * 2 Programs * 2.1 Topographic mapping * 3 The National Map and U.S
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County (us)
In the United States
United States
, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a COUNTY , which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana
Louisiana
and Alaska
Alaska
have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively. Most counties have subdivisions which may include municipalities and unincorporated areas . Others have no further divisions, or may serve as a consolidated city-county . Some municipalities are in multiple counties ; New York City
New York City
is uniquely partitioned into multiple counties/boroughs. The U.S. federal government
U.S. federal government
uses the term "county equivalent" to describe non-county administrative or statistical areas that are comparable to counties. Louisiana
Louisiana
parishes; the organized boroughs of Alaska; the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
; and the independent cities of the states of Virginia
Virginia
, Maryland
Maryland
, Missouri
Missouri
, and Nevada
Nevada
are equivalent to counties for administrative purposes. Alaska's Unorganized Borough is divided into 10 census areas that are statistically equivalent to counties
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Water Table
The WATER TABLE is the upper surface of the zone of saturation . The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water. The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). It may be visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. The groundwater may be from precipitation or from groundwater flowing into the aquifer. In areas with sufficient precipitation, water infiltrates through pore spaces in the soil, passing through the unsaturated zone . At increasing depths water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. Below the water table, in the phreatic zone (zone of saturation), layers of permeable rock that yield groundwater are called aquifers. In less permeable soils, such as tight bedrock formations and historic lakebed deposits, the water table may be more difficult to define. The water table should not be confused with the water level in a deeper well. If a deeper aquifer has a lower permeable unit that confines the upward flow, then the water level in this aquifer may rise to a level that is greater or less than the elevation of the actual water table. The elevation of the water in this deeper well is dependent upon the pressure in the deeper aquifer and is referred to as the potentiometric surface , not the water table
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Aquifer
An AQUIFER is an underground layer of water -bearing permeable rock , rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel , sand , or silt ) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well . The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology . Related terms include AQUITARD, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and AQUICLUDE (or _aquifuge_), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer. CONTENTS * 1 Depth * 2 Classification * 2.1 Saturated versus unsaturated * 2.2 Aquifers versus aquitards * 2.3 Confined versus unconfined * 2.4 Isotropic versus anisotropic * 3 Groundwater in rock formations * 4 Human dependence on groundwater * 5 Subsidence * 6 Saltwater intrusion * 7 Salination * 8 Examples * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links DEPTHAquifers may occur at various depths. Those closer to the surface are not only more likely to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are also more likely to be topped up by the local rainfall. Many desert areas have limestone hills or mountains within them or close to them that can be exploited as groundwater resources
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Great Plains
The GREAT PLAINS is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain ), much of it covered in prairie , steppe and grassland , that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie states and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers the entirety of the states of Kansas , Nebraska , South Dakota and North Dakota and parts of the states of Colorado , Montana , New Mexico , Oklahoma , Texas , Wyoming and reaches into the southern portions of the Canadian provinces of Alberta , Manitoba and Saskatchewan . The region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies . It covers much of Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, and a narrow band of southern Manitoba. Despite covering a relatively small geographic area, the Prairies are nevertheless home to the majority of all three provinces' populations
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U.S. State
A U.S. STATE is a constituent political entity of the United States of America . There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, and shares its sovereignty with the United States
United States
federal government . Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside . State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states , except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody ). States range in population from just under 600,000 (Wyoming) to over 39 million (California), and in area from 1,214 square miles (3,140 km2) (Rhode Island) to 663,268 square miles (1,717,860 km2) (Alaska). Four states use the term _commonwealth _ rather than _state_ in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state. State governments are allocated power by the people (of each respective state) through their individual constitutions
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South Dakota
SOUTH DAKOTA (/ˌsaʊθ dəˈkoʊtə/ ( listen ); locally: ) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States . It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the 17th most expansive , but the 5th least populous and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States . Once the southern part of the Dakota Territory , South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota . Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls , with a population of about 171,000, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota (on the north), Minnesota (to the east), Iowa (to the southeast), Nebraska (on the south), Wyoming (on the west), and Montana (to the northwest). The state is bisected by the Missouri River , dividing South Dakota into two geographically and socially distinct halves, known to residents as "East River " and "West River ". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, and the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops
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Nebraska
_Welcome to NEBRASKAland where the West begins_ SOIL Holdrege series SONG " Beautiful Nebraska " OTHER RIVER: Platte River STATE ROUTE MARKER STATE QUARTER Released in 2006 Lists of United States state symbols NEBRASKA /nᵻˈbræskə/ ( listen ) is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States . The state is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north, Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri to the southeast, both across the Missouri River , Kansas
Kansas
to the south, Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state . Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 sq mi (200,000 km2) with almost 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln , and its largest city is Omaha , which is on the Missouri River . Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
including Omaha , Missouria , Ponca , Pawnee , Otoe , and various branches of the Lakota ( Sioux
Sioux
) tribes lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration. The state is crossed by many historic trails and was explored by the Lewis and Clark Expedition
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Wyoming
WYOMING /waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ ( listen ) is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the tenth largest by area , the least populous and the second least densely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana , on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska , on the south by Colorado , on the southwest by Utah , and on the west by Idaho . The state population was estimated at 586,107 in 2015, which is less than 31 of the largest U.S. cities . Cheyenne is the capital and the most populous city, with population estimated at 63,335 in 2015. The western two-thirds of the state is covered mostly by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains , while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains . Almost half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government , leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks— Grand Teton and Yellowstone —two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, and wildlife refuges. Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow , Arapaho , Lakota , and Shoshone
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Colorado
COLORADO (/kɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ ( listen ) ) is a state in the United States encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains . Colorado is part of the Western United States , the Southwestern United States , and the Mountain States . Colorado is the 8th most extensive and the 21st most populous of the 50 United States . The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Colorado was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 10.17% since the 2010 United States Census . The state was named for the Colorado River , which Spanish travelers named the _Río Colorado_ for the ruddy (Spanish : _colorado_) silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State " because it became a state a century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence
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Kansas
KANSAS /ˈkænzəs/ (_ listen ) is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States . Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita . Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name (natively kką:ze_) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes . Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison . Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1812, in what is now Bonner Springs , but the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When it was officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act , abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state . Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding Kansas
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Oklahoma
English ( Choctaw official within Choctaw Nation , Cherokee official within Cherokee Nation and UKB ) DEMONYM Oklahoman; Okie (colloq. ) CAPITAL Oklahoma City LARGEST CITY Oklahoma City LARGEST METRO Oklahoma City-Shawnee Metropolitan Area AREA Ranked 20th • TOTAL 69,897 sq mi (181,295 km2) • WIDTH 230 miles (450 km) • LENGTH 465 miles (750 km) • % WATER 1.8 • LATITUDE 33°37' N to 37° N • LONGITUDE 94° 26' W to 103° W POPULATION Ranked 28th • TOTAL 3,923,561 (2016 est.) • DENSITY 55.2/sq mi (21.3/km2) Ranked 35th ELEVATION • HIGHEST POINT Black Mesa 4,975 ft (1516 m) • MEAN 1,300 ft (400 m) • LOWEST POINT Little River at Arkansas border 289 ft (88 m) BEFORE STATEHOOD Oklahoma Territory / Indian territory ADMISSION TO UNION November 16, 1907 (46th) GOVERNOR Mary Fallin (R) LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR Todd Lamb (R) LEGISLATURE Oklahoma Legislature • UPPER HOUSE Senate • LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives U.S. SENATORS Jim Inhofe (R) James Lankford (R) U.S
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New Mexico
NEW MEXICO (Spanish : _Nuevo México_ pronounced locally ; Navajo : _Yootó Hahoodzo_ ) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America . It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States . New Mexico is fifth by area , the 36th-most populous , and the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States. Inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain . Later, it was part of independent Mexico for a short period before becoming a U.S. territory and eventually a U.S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War . Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics , including mostly descendants of the original Spanish colonists who have lived in the area for more than 400 years beginning in 1598. It has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a proportion of the population after Alaska , and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California , Oklahoma , and Arizona . The major Native American nations in the state are Navajo , Pueblo , and Apache peoples
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Texas
TEXAS (/ˈtɛksəs/ , locally /ˈtɛksᵻz/ ; Spanish : _ Texas or Tejas_ ) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population . Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua , Coahuila , Nuevo León , and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas– Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin , the second most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso . Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico . The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texan state seal
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Nelson Horatio Darton
NELSON HORATIO DARTON (December 17, 1865 – February 28, 1948) was a geologist who worked for the United States
United States
Geological Survey . He was born in Brooklyn, New York , and started working in his uncle's drug business at the age of 13, also becoming a practicing chemist . His interest in geology started as a sideline, and he was hired by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1886. Darton was an expert at geological photography, a noted geologic map maker, and a hydrogeologist . He was awarded the Penrose Medal in 1940. He also made some important paleontological discoveries. He retired in 1936 at the age of 71 but was allowed to keep his office at the USGS
USGS
, and he continued an active geological career with a focus on the geology of the Washington DC area. He produced more than 200 publications and received many honors and awards. Three weeks before he died in 1948, he was still coming daily to the USGS
USGS
and gave a lecture to the Geological Society of Washington on the geology of the DC area. PUBLICATIONS Wikisource has original works written by or about: NELSON HORATIO DARTON * Preliminary report on the geology and underground water resources of the central Great Plains U.S
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