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Ogallala Aquifer
The OGALLALA AQUIFER is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains
Great Plains
in the United States. One of the world's largest aquifers, it underlies an area of approximately 174,000 sq mi (450,000 km2) in portions of eight states ( South Dakota
South Dakota
, Nebraska
Nebraska
, Wyoming
Wyoming
, Colorado
Colorado
, Kansas
Kansas
, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
, New Mexico
New Mexico
, and Texas
Texas
). It was named in 1898 by geologist N. H. Darton from its type locality near the town of Ogallala, Nebraska
Nebraska
. The aquifer is part of the High Plains Aquifer System, and rests on the Ogallala Formation , which is the principal geologic unit underlying 80% of the High Plains
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Irrigated Agriculture
IRRIGATION is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation
Irrigation
helps grow agricultural crops , maintain landscapes , and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Irrigation
Irrigation
also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation . In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming . Irrigation
Irrigation
systems are also used for cooling livestock , dust suppression , disposal of sewage , and in mining . Irrigation
Irrigation
is often studied together with drainage , which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area
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Baseflow
BASEFLOW (also called DROUGHT FLOW, GROUNDWATER RECESSION FLOW, LOW FLOW, LOW-WATER FLOW, LOW-WATER DISCHARGE and SUSTAINED or FAIR-WEATHER RUNOFF) is the portion of streamflow that comes from "the sum of deep subsurface flow and delayed shallow subsurface flow". It should not be confused with groundwater flow .Fair weather flow is called as Base flow . Certain parameters of baseflow, such as the mean residence time and the baseflow recession curve, can be useful in describing the mixing of waters (such as from precipitation and groundwater) and the level of groundwater contribution to streamflow in catchments. Baseflow separation is often used to determine what portion of a streamflow hydrograph occurs from baseflow, and what portion occurs from overland flow . Common methods include using isotope tracing and the software program HYSEP, among others
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Steppe
In physical geography , a STEPPE (Russian : степь; IPA: ) is an ecoregion , in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes , characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa
South Africa
they are referred to as veld . The prairie (especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. It may be semi-desert , or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude . The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest , but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Vadose Zone
The VADOSE ZONE, also termed the unsaturated zone, is the part of Earth between the land surface and the top of the phreatic zone, the position at which the groundwater (the water in the soil's pores) is at atmospheric pressure ("vadose" is from the Latin for "shallow"). Hence, the vadose zone extends from the top of the ground surface to the water table. Water in the vadose zone has a pressure head less than atmospheric pressure , and is retained by a combination of adhesion (funiculary groundwater), and capillary action (capillary groundwater). If the vadose zone envelops soil , the water contained therein is termed soil moisture . In fine grained soils, capillary action can cause the pores of the soil to be fully saturated above the water table at a pressure less than atmospheric. The vadose zone does not include the area that is still saturated above the water table, often referred to as the capillary fringe
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Caliche
CALICHE (ka-lee'-chee, or sometimes klee'-chee) is a sedimentary rock , a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt. It occurs worldwide, in aridisol and mollisol soil orders—generally in arid or semiarid regions, including in central and western Australia , in the Kalahari Desert , in the High Plains of the western USA , in the Sonoran Desert , and in Eastern Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa . Caliche is also known as HARDPAN , CALCRETE, KANKAR (in India), or DURICRUST . The term caliche is Spanish and is originally from the Latin calx, meaning lime . Caliche is generally light-colored, but can range from white to light pink to reddish-brown, depending on the impurities present. It generally occurs on or near the surface, but can be found in deeper subsoil deposits, as well. Layers vary from a few inches to feet thick, and multiple layers can exist in a single location
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US Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California

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Water Cycle
The WATER CYCLE, also known as the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE or the HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth
Earth
. The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water , saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables . The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean , or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation , condensation , precipitation , infiltration , surface runoff , and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice ) and vapor . The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. For instance, when water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment
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United States Geological Survey
The UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (USGS, formerly simply GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government . The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States
United States
, its natural resources , and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology , geography , geology , and hydrology . The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior ; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston , Virginia . The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood , Colorado
Colorado
, at the Denver Federal Center , and Menlo Park , California
California

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Porosity
POROSITY or VOID FRACTION is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "accessible void", the total amount of void space accessible from the surface (cf. closed-cell foam). There are many ways to test porosity in a substance or part, such as industrial CT scanning . The term porosity is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics , ceramics , metallurgy , materials , manufacturing , earth sciences , soil mechanics and engineering
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Last Glacial Period
The LAST GLACIAL PERIOD, popularly known as the ICE AGE, was the most recent glacial period , which occurred from c.  110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present). From this point of view, scientists consider this "ice age " to be merely the latest glaciation event in a much larger ice age, one that dates back over two million years and is still ongoing. During this last glacial period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The Last Glacial Maximum , the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period, was approximately 22,000 years ago
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Hydraulic Conductivity
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, symbolically represented as K {displaystyle K} , is a property of vascular plants , soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material, the degree of saturation , and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ksat, describes water movement through saturated media. By definition, hydraulic conductivity is the ratio of velocity to hydraulic gradient indicating permeability of porous media
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Playa Lakes
A DRY LAKE is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge. If evaporite mineral accumulations are absent, it is known as a playa. If the floor of a dry lake is covered by deposits of alkaline compounds, it is known as an alkali flat. If covered with salt, it is known as a salt flat . A playa lake may cover a wide area, but it is never deep. Most water in it evaporates, leaving a layer of salt on the surface. These salt covered stretches are called saltpans. The surface of a dry lake is typically dry, hard and rough during the dry season, but wet and very soft in the rainy season. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Formation * 3 Ecology * 4 Human use * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography TERMINOLOGYIf its basin is primarily salt , then a dry lake is called a salt pan , pan, hardpan, or salt flat (the latter being a remnant of a salt lake )
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Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission And Reflection Radiometer
ASTER (ADVANCED SPACEBORNE THERMAL EMISSION AND REFLECTION RADIOMETER) is a Japanese sensor which is one of five remote sensory devices on board the Terra satellite launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999. The instrument has been collecting data since February 2000. ASTER image of Rub\' al Khali (Arabia's Empty Quarter) ASTER provides high-resolution images of the planet Earth in 14 different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum , ranging from visible to thermal infrared light. The resolution of images ranges between 15 and 90 meters. ASTER data are used to create detailed maps of surface temperature of land, emissivity , reflectance , and elevation . In April 2008, the SWIR detectors of ASTER began malfunctioning and were publicly declared non-operational by NASA in January 2009. All SWIR data collected after the 1st April 2008 has been marked as unusable
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Drought
A DROUGHT is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water . A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy . Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour . Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti ), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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