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Official Language
An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature, administration).[1] The term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government,[2] as "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law".[3] About half the countries of the world have declared one or more official languages. The government of Italy officialised Italian only in 1999,[4] and some nations (such as the United States) have never declared official languages at the national level.[5] Other nations have declared non-indigenous official languages
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Government Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councilsPremiersLegislative (Queen-in-Parliament) Federal parliamentSenateSpeaker of the Senate Government
Government
Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisionsHouse of CommonsSpeaker of the house Government
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Aramaic Language
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Advance Australia
Australia
Fair[N 1] Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the AntarcticCapitalCanberra35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest citySydneyNational languageEnglish[N 2]Religion (2016)[3] Various 52%
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Jurisdiction (area)
A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts or government entity which are different from neighbouring areas.[1][2] Each state in a federation such as Australia, Germany
Germany
and the United States forms a separate jurisdiction
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese,[a] is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for almost all formal writing in China
China
until the early 20th century, and also, during various periods, in Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam
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First Emperor Of Qin
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t e Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
(Chinese: 秦始皇; literally: "First Emperor of Qin",  pronunciation (help·info); 18 February 259 BC – 10 September 210 BC) was the founder of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(秦朝) and was the first emperor of a unified China. He was born Ying Zheng (嬴政) or Zhao Zheng (趙政), a prince of the state of Qin
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Sogdiana
Sogdia
Sogdia
or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent
Panjikent
and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, eighteenth in the list on the Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
of Darius the Great (i. 16)
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Bactria
Bactria
Bactria
or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia. Bactria
Bactria
proper was north of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountain range and south of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
river,[1] covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
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History Of Achaemenid Egypt
Standard of Cyrus the GreatPharaoh •  525-522 BC Cambyses II
Cambyses II
(first) •  423-404 BC Darius II
Darius II
(last)Historical era Achaemenid era •  Battle of Pelusium
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Official Aramaic
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic
Middle Aramaic
by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
in 224 CE). Emerging as the language of the city-states of the Arameans
Arameans
in the Levant
Levant
in the Early Iron Age, Old Aramaic was adopted as a lingua franca (besides the Assyrian dialect of Akkadian) in the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and in this role was inherited for official use by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
during classical antiquity
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Aramaic Script
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[11] Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one
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De Facto
In law, government and official unit, the term de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ, di -/ day FAK-toh, dee -⁠;[1] Latin: de facto [deː ˈfaktoː], "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("by law"), which refers to things that happen according to law.Contents1 Examples1.1 Standards 1.2 National languages 1.3 Politics1.3.1 Segregation2 Other uses2.1 Relationships 2.2 Relationships not recognised outside Australia 2.3 Non-marital relationship contract 2.4 Family law – custody3 Other uses of the term 4 See also 5 ReferencesExamples[edit] Standards[edit] Main article: De facto standard A de facto standard is a standard (formal or informal) that has achieved a dominant position by tradition, enforcement, or market dominance
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