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Oenochoe
An OENOCHOE, also spelled OINOCHOE ( Ancient Greek : οἰνοχόη; from Ancient Greek : οἶνος oînos, "wine" and Ancient Greek : wikt:χέω khéō, "I pour"; plural oenochoai or oinochoai), is a wine jug and a key form of ancient Greek pottery . There are many different forms of oenochoe; Sir John Beazley distinguished ten types. The earliest is the OLPE (ὀλπή, olpḗ), with no distinct shoulder and usually a handle rising above the lip. The "type 8 oenochoe" is what one would call a mug, with no single pouring point and a slightly curved profile. The CHOUS (χοῦς; pl. choes) was a squat rounded form, with trefoil mouth. Small examples with scenes of children, as in the example illustrated, were placed in the graves of children. Oenochoai may be decorated or undecorated. Oenochoai typically have only one handle at the back and may include a trefoil mouth and pouring spout
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Trefoil
TREFOIL (from Latin trifolium, "three-leaved plant", French trèfle, Italian trifoglio, German Dreiblatt and Dreiblattbogen, Dutch klaver, "clover ", same as clubs ) is a graphic form composed of the outline of three overlapping rings used in architecture and Christian symbolism . The term is also applied to other symbols of three-fold shape
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Wild-goat Style
The WILD GOAT STYLE (variously capitalized and hyphenated) is a modern term describing vase painting produced in the east of Greece, namely the southern and eastern Ionian islands, between c. 650 to 550 BCE. Examples have been found notably at the sites in Chios , at Miletus and in Rhodes
Rhodes
. The style owes its name to the predominant motif found on such vases: friezes of goats. The style developed the technique introduced during the Orientalizing Period of rendering the heads of figures in outline by applying it to the whole of a figure. Thus where previously an image was a silhouette, the Wild Goat Style allowed a greater representation of detail and marked a step forward in the progress towards naturalism
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Louvre
7.3 million (2016) * Ranked 1st nationally * Ranked 3rd globally DIRECTOR Jean-Luc Martinez CURATOR Marie-Laure de Rochebrune PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS * Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre * Louvre-Rivoli WEBSITE www.louvre.frThe LOUVRE (US : /ˈluːv, ˈluːvrə/ ) or the LOUVRE MUSEUM (French : _Musée du Louvre_, pronounced ( listen )) is the world's largest museum and a historic monument in Paris
Paris
, France
France
. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
in the city's 1st arrondissement (district or ward). Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres (782,910 square feet). The Louvre is the world\'s third most visited museum , receiving 7.3 million visitors in 2016
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers
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Wine
WINE (from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes , generally Vitis vinifera , fermented without the addition of sugars , acids , enzymes , water , or other nutrients . Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide . Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir , and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum , cherry , pomegranate and elderberry . Wine
Wine
has been produced for thousands of years
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Jug
A JUG is a type of container commonly used to hold liquid. It has an opening, often narrow, from which to pour or drink, and often has a handle. Most jugs throughout history have been made of ceramic, glass or plastic . Some Native American and other tribes created liquid holding vessels by making woven baskets lined with an asphaltum sealer. In American English usage, a jug is a large container with a narrow mouth and handle for liquids, and may be used to describe thin plastic sealed shop packaging for milk and other liquids. In all other English speaking countries a jug is any container with a handle and a mouth and spout for liquid, and not used for retail packaging. In American English "pitcher " is the usual word for wide-mouthed vessels, but all other English speaking countries these are called "jugs"
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Pottery Of Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREEK POTTERY, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece
Greece
, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum ), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society . The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide available to understand the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were several vessels produced locally for everyday and kitchen use, yet finer pottery from regions such as Attica
Attica
was imported by other civilizations throughout the Mediterranean , such as the Etruscans in Italy
Italy
. There were various specific regional varieties, such as the South Italian ancient Greek pottery
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John Beazley
SIR JOHN DAVIDSON BEAZLEY, CH , FBA (/ˈbiːzli/ ; 13 September 1885 – 6 May 1970) was a British classical archaeologist and art historian , known for his classification of Attic vases by artistic style . He was Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford from 1925 to 1956. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Later life * 4 Awards and recognition * 5 Personal life * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEBeazley was born in Glasgow
Glasgow
, Scotland
Scotland
on 13 September 1885, to Mark John Murray Beazley (died 1940) and Mary Catherine Beazley née Davidson (died 1918). He was educated at King Edward VI School , Southampton and Christ\'s Hospital , Sussex. He then attended Balliol College , Oxford
Oxford
where he read Literae Humaniores . He received firsts in both the Honour Moderations and the Final Honour School
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Terracotta
TERRACOTTA, TERRA COTTA or TERRA-COTTA (pronounced ; Italian : "baked earth", from the Latin _terra cocta_), a type of earthenware , is a clay -based unglazed or glazed ceramic , where the fired body is porous. Terracotta is the term normally used for sculpture made in earthenware, and also for various utilitarian uses including vessels (notably flower pots ), water and waste water pipes, roofing tiles , bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction . The term is also used to refer to the natural, brownish orange color , of most terracotta, which varies considerably. This article covers the senses of terracotta as a medium in sculpture, as in the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines , and architectural decoration. Asian and European sculpture in porcelain is not covered
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Relief
RELIEF is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term _relief_ is from the Latin verb _relevo_, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane . What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving ) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone
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Corinth
CORINTH (/ˈkɒrɪnθ/ ; Greek : Κόρινθος, _Kórinthos_, pronounced ( listen )) is a city and former municipality in Corinthia , Peloponnese , Greece . Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Corinth , of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It is the capital of Corinthia. It was founded as NEA KORINTHOS or NEW CORINTH (Νέα Κόρινθος) in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the existing settlement of Corinth, which had developed in and around the site of ancient Corinth
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Bronze
BRONZE is an alloy consisting primarily of copper , commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium , manganese , nickel or zinc ) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic , phosphorus or silicon . These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility , or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age . In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time; everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, though bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in modern times
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Archaic Greece
ARCHAIC GREECE was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period . The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable as compared to its beginning. According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece
Greece
was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture
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Oinochoe By The Shuvalov Painter (Berlin F2414)
The OINOCHOE BY THE SHUVALOV PAINTER in the Antikensammlung at Berlin (inventory number F 2414) is one of the most famous erotic depictions from ancient Greek vase painting . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 References * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Complete view of the oinochoe in the current exhibition at the Altes Museum
Altes Museum
. The rather small oinochoe was found in Locri
Locri
in southern Italy. The clay jug is covered with a highly glossy black clay slip almost in its entirety, thus rendering the single small painted red-figure scene particularly striking. It is positioned on the upper part of the vessel's body, directly opposite the handle. The image depicts a young man and a girl or woman immediately before sexual intercourse . The youth of the man is clearly indicated by his long curls hanging by his temple and neck
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Dipylon Inscription
The DIPYLON INSCRIPTION is a short text written on an ancient Greek pottery vessel dated to ca. 740 BC. It is famous for being the oldest (or one of the oldest) known samples of the use of the Greek alphabet . The text is scratched on a wine jug (oenochoe ), which was found in 1871 and is named after the location where it was found, the ancient Dipylon Cemetery, near the Dipylon Gate on the area of Kerameikos in Athens
Athens
. The jug is attributed to the Late Geometrical Period (750-700 BC). It is now in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Athens
(inv. 192). CONTENTS * 1 Text * 2 Oldest inscriptions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TEXTThe text is written in an archaic form of the Greek alphabet , with some letter shapes still resembling those of the original Phoenician alphabet
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