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Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a radical economic theory in the labour movement that was most active in the early 20th century. Its main idea is the establishment of local worker-based organizations and the advancement of the demands and rights of workers through strikes. According to the Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was predominant in the revolutionary left in the decade which preceded the outbreak of World War I because orthodox Marxism was mostly reformist at that time.[1] Major syndicalist organizations included the General Confederation of Labor in France, the National Confederation of Labour in Spain, the Italian Syndicalist Union, the Free Workers' Union of Germany, and the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation
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Brazilian Labour Party (current)
The Brazilian Labour Party (Portuguese: Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, PTB) is a political party in Brazil founded in 1981 by Ivete Vargas, niece of President Getúlio Vargas. It claims the legacy of the historical PTB, although many historians reject this because the early version of PTB was a center-left party with wide support in the working class.[4] Despite the name suggesting a left-leaning unionist labour party, the PTB joined a coalition led by the centrist/centre-right PSDB. In 1981, the military dictatorship that had dismantled the historic PTB decided to revoke its legislation which enforced a two-party state. Ivete Vargas, niece of Getúlio Vargas, became the president of the party. Soon thereafter, a social-democratic wing of the original PTB, led by Leonel Brizola, founded the Democratic Labour Party (PDT)
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Overtime Ban
Overtime bans are a type of strike in which workers refuse to engage in overtime work, being any work that falls outside of contracted hours.[1] They do this in order to leverage their employer into negotiating various working conditions. Often organised in unions, workers may choose this form of industrial action to bargain for a higher rate of pay, better working conditions or to discourage an employer from making redundancies.[1] Unlike a full strike in which employees are usually in breach of their contract, workers engaging in overtime bans are typically well protected. Employers cannot legally to withhold normal wages during an overtime ban if employees are not breaching the terms of their employment contracts by refusing to do overtime work.[2] However, the legalities of overtime bans do vary between countries
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Social Democracy

Although well within the liberal and modern liberal American tradition, Franklin D. Roosevelt's more radical, extensive and populist Second New Deal challenged the business community. Conservative Democrats led by Roman Catholic politician and former presidential candidate Al Smith fought back along with the American Liberty League, savagely attacking Roosevelt and equating him and his policies with Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.[344] This allowed Roosevelt to isolate his opponents and identify them with the wealthy landed interests that opposed the New Deal, strengthening Roosevelt's political capital and becoming one of the key causes of his landslide victory in the 1936 presidential election
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Labour Party (Netherlands)

The highest organ of the PvdA is the Congress, formed by delegates from the municipal branches. It convenes once every year. It appoints the party board, decides the order of candidates on electoral lists for the Senate, House of Representatives and European Parliament and has the final say over the party programme. Since 2002, a referendum of all members has partially replaced the Congress. Both the lijsttrekker of the House of Representatives candidate list, who is the political leader of the party, and the party chairman, who leads the party organisation, are selected by such a referendum. In 2002, Wouter Bos won the PvdA leadership election.

Members

As of 2020, PvdA has 42,794 members.&The highest organ of the PvdA is the Congress, formed by delegates from the municipal branches. It convenes once every year
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Legal Working Age
The legal working age is the minimum age required by law for a person to work, in each country or jurisdiction, if they have not reached yet the age of majority. Activities that are dangerous, harmful to the health or that may affect the morals of minors fall into this category. 13: (Light work only. Must have parent permission. Restricted working hours and shortened working week.)
16: (Light work only. Restricted working hours)
18: (Unrestricted)[79]
Age 13: (Must have parental permission; only easy work) Age 15: (Must have parental permission) Age 16: Minimum age to serve someone in restaurants, café or hotels. Minimum age to work in a circus or cinema. Age 18: Unrestricted (and the minimum age to work in: Bars, Discos, Dancinghalls and Nightclubs)[80]

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Secondary Action

In the United Kingdom, sympathy strikes were outlawed by the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 in the aftermath of the general strike. That was repealed by the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1946, passed by the postwar Labour Government. Solidarity action remained legal until 1980, when the government of Margaret Thatcher passed the Employment Act 1980 to restrict it. That was followed by the Employment Act 1990, which outlawed solidarity action entirely. The laws outlawing solidarity strikes remain to this day. In 2005, union leaders called for the legalization of solidarity strikes in the aftermath of the strike action against the catering company GateIn the United Kingdom, sympathy strikes were outlawed by the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 in the aftermath of the general strike
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Sitdown Strike
A sit-down strike is a labour strike and a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at factories or other centralized locations, take unauthorized or illegal possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations. The attraction of the tactic is that it prevents employers from replacing them with strikebreakers or removing equipment to transfer production to other locations. Neal Ascherson has commented that an additional attraction is that it emphasizes the role of workers in providing for the people and allows workers to in effect hold valuable machinery hostage as a bargaining chip.[1][
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