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Nymphaeales
Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
Hydatellaceae Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
The NYMPHAEALES are an order of flowering plants , consisting of three families of aquatic plants, the Hydatellaceae , the Cabombaceae , and the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
(water lilies). It is one of the three orders of basal angiosperms , an early-diverging grade of flowering plants . At least 10 morphological characters unite the Nymphaeales. Molecular synapomorphies are also known. The Plant
Plant
List , created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
recognizes about 70 species in 11 genera within the order, but a phylogenetic study of the genus Nymphaea implies that the number of species could be more than 90
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Phenotypic Trait
A PHENOTYPIC TRAIT, or simply TRAIT, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism ; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a CHARACTER of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms * 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms * 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits * 5 Schizotypy * 6 See also * 7 Citations * 8 References DEFINITIONA phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color; underlying genes, which make up the genotype , "control" the hair color, but the actual hair color, the part we see, is the phenotype
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Molecular Phylogenetics
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS (/məˈlɛkjᵿlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/ ) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree . Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography
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Synapomorphies
In phylogenetics , APOMORPHY and SYNAPOMORPHY refer to derived characteristics of a clade . Apomorphy implies a characteristic that is different from the form of an ancestor, i.e., an innovation, of use in determining membership in a clade. Synapomorphy is a shared DERIVED CHARACTER or trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms. In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor . The word synapomorphy, coined by German entomologist Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
, is derived from the Greek words σύν, syn = shared; ἀπό, apo = away from; and μορφή, morphe = shape. A derived character is a character that is derived from an ancestral character over evolutionary history. Derived characters are used in determining phylogenetic relationships
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The Plant List
THE PLANT LIST is a list of botanical names of species of plants created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden and launched in 2010. It is intended to be comprehensive, that is, deal with all known names of species. There is a complementary project called the International Plant
Plant
Names Index , in which Kew is also involved. The IPNI aims to provide details of publication and does not aim to determine which are accepted species names. Newly published names are automatically added from IPNI to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families , a database which underlies the Plant
Plant
List. CONTENTS * 1 Findings * 2 Public attention * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links FINDINGSThe Plant
Plant
List has 1,064,035 scientific plant names of species rank
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Plant Morphology
PLANT MORPHOLOGY or PHYTOMORPHOLOGY is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants . This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy , which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the visual identification of plants
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Evolutionary Grade
In alpha taxonomy , a GRADE is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity. The term was coined by British biologist Julian Huxley , to contrast with clade , a strictly phylogenetic unit. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Grades in systematics * 3 Grades and phylogenetic nomenclature * 4 Examples * 5 References DEFINITIONAn evolutionary grade is a group of species united by morphological or physiological traits, that has given rise to another group that differs markedly from the ancestral condition, and is thus not considered part of the ancestral group. The ancestral group will not be phylogenetically complete (i.e. will not form a clade ), so will represent a paraphyletic taxon. The most commonly cited example is that of reptiles . In the early 19th century, the French naturalist Latreille was the first to divide tetrapods into the four familiar classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Megaannum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics , BASAL is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram . Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid. In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW (brand name KEW) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs . An internationally important botanical research and education institution, it employs 750 staff. Its chief executive is the current Director , Richard Deverell. Its board of trustees is chaired by Marcus Agius , a former chairman of Barclays PLC . The organisation manages botanic gardens at Kew in Richmond upon Thames in southwest London, and at Wakehurst Place , a National Trust property in Sussex which is home to an internationally important Millennium Seed Bank . The Seed Bank is also the site of multiple research projects and international partnerships with at least 80 countries
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Missouri Botanical Garden
The MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
. It is also known informally as SHAW\'S GARDEN for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw
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Herbaceous Plant
HERBACEOUS PLANTS (in botanical use frequently simply HERBS) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground. Herbaceous plants may be annuals , biennials or perennials . Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed. Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots , a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems , such as bulbs , corms , stolons , rhizomes and tubers
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Fossil
A FOSSIL (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age . Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons , stone imprints of animals or microbes , hair, petrified wood , oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old. The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Crown Group
In phylogenetics , the CROWN GROUP of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants. It is thus a clade , a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. The concept was developed by Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
, the formulator of phylogenetic systematics , as a way of classifying living organisms relative to their extinct relatives in his "Die Stammesgeschichte der Insekten", and the "crown" and "stem" group terminology was coined by R. P. S. Jefferies in 1979. Though formulated in the 1970s, the term was not commonly used until its reintroduction in 2000 by Graham Budd and Sören Jensen
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Aquatic Plant
AQUATIC PLANTS are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater ). They are also referred to as HYDROPHYTES or MACROPHYTES . These plants require special adaptations for living submerged in water , or at the water's surface. The most common adaptation is aerenchyma , but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are also common. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is permanently saturated with water. They are therefore a common component of wetlands. The principal factor controlling the distribution of aquatic plants is the depth and duration of flooding. However, other factors may also control their distribution, abundance, and growth form, including nutrients, disturbance from waves, grazing, and salinity. Aquatic vascular plants have originated on multiple occasions in different plant families; they can be ferns or angiosperms (including both monocots and dicots )
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