HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Nymphaeales
Cabombaceae Hydatellaceae NymphaeaceaeThe Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
are an order of flowering plants, consisting of three families of aquatic plants, the Hydatellaceae, the Cabombaceae, and the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
(water lilies). It is one of the three orders of basal angiosperms, an early-diverging grade of flowering plants
[...More...]

"Nymphaeales" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
[...More...]

"Megaannum" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Kew
(brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. An internationally important botanical research and education institution, it employs 723 staff (FTE).[1] Its board of trustees is chaired by Marcus Agius,[1] a former chairman of Barclays. The organisation manages botanic gardens at Kew
Kew
in Richmond upon Thames in southwest London, and at Wakehurst Place, a National Trust property in Sussex
Sussex
which is home to an internationally important Millennium Seed Bank, whose scientists work with partner organisations in more than 95 countries.[3] Seed stored at the bank fulfils two functions: it provides an ex-situ conservation resource and also facilitates research around the globe by acting as a repository for seed scientists
[...More...]

"Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
[...More...]

"Basal (phylogenetics)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Evolutionary Grade
In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity. The term was coined by British biologist Julian Huxley, to contrast with clade, a strictly phylogenetic unit.[1]Contents1 Definition 2 Grades in systematics 3 Grades and phylogenetic nomenclature 4 Examples 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] An evolutionary grade is a group of species united by morphological or physiological traits, that has given rise to another group that differs markedly from the ancestral condition, and is thus not considered part of the ancestral group. The ancestral group will not be phylogenetically complete (i.e. will not form a clade), so will represent a paraphyletic taxon. The most commonly cited example is that of reptiles
[...More...]

"Evolutionary Grade" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Plant Morphology
Plant
Plant
morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.[1] This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy,[1] which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level.[2] Plant morphology is useful in the visual identification of plants. Inflorescences
[...More...]

"Plant Morphology" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Phenotypic Trait
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.[1] For example, eye color is a character of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits.Contents1 Definition 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits 5 Schizotypy 6 See also 7 Citations 8 ReferencesDefinition[edit] A phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color. Underlying genes, which make up the genotype, determine the hair color, but the hair color observed is the phenotype
[...More...]

"Phenotypic Trait" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Molecular Phylogenetics
Molecular phylogenetics (/məˈlɛkjʊlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/[1][2]) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA
DNA
sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree. Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of molecular systematics, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography.Contents1 History 2 Techniques and applications 3 Theoretical background 4 Limitations of molecular systematics 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] Further information: History of molecular evolution The theoretical frameworks for molecular systematics were laid in the 1960s in the works of Emile Zuckerkandl, Emanuel Margoliash, Linus Pauling, and Walter M
[...More...]

"Molecular Phylogenetics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Synapomorphies
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.[2] An apomorphy is a character that is different from the form found in an ancestor, i.e., an innovation, that sets the clade apart ("apo") from other clades. A synapomorphy is a shared ("syn") apomorphy that distinguishes a clade from other organisms.[1][3] In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor. The word synapomorphy, coined by German entomologist Willi Hennig, is derived from the Greek words σύν, syn = shared; ἀπό, apo = away from; and μορφή, morphe = shape. As an example, in most groups of mammals, the vertebral column is highly conserved, with the same number of vertebrae found in the neck of a giraffe, for example, as in mammals with shorter necks
[...More...]

"Synapomorphies" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

The Plant List
The Plant
Plant
List is a list of botanical names of species of plants created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
and the Missouri Botanical Garden and launched in 2010.[1] It was intended to be comprehensive, that is, deal with all known names of species. There is a complementary project called the International Plant
Plant
Names Index, in which Kew is also involved. The IPNI aims to provide details of publication and does not aim to determine which are accepted species names
[...More...]

"The Plant List" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Missouri Botanical Garden
The Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri. It is also known informally as Shaw's Garden for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw
[...More...]

"Missouri Botanical Garden" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
[...More...]

"Order (biology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Phylogenetic
In biology, phylogenetics /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/[1][2] (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth)[3] is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species, or populations). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.[4] The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage
[...More...]

"Phylogenetic" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Circumscription (taxonomy)
In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of a taxon, that is, a group of organisms. One goal of biological taxonomy is to achieve a stable circumscription for every taxon. Achieving stability is not yet a certainty in most taxa, and many that had been regarded as stable for decades are in upheaval in the light of rapid developments in molecular phylogenetics. In essence, new discoveries may invalidate the application of irrelevant attributes used in established or obsolete circumscriptions, or present new attributes useful in cladistic taxonomy. An example of a taxonomic group with unstable circumscription is Anacardiaceae, a family of flowering plants
[...More...]

"Circumscription (taxonomy)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
[...More...]

"Species" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Rhizome
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (/ˈraɪzoʊm/, from Ancient Greek: rhízōma "mass of roots",[1] from rhizóō "cause to strike root")[2] is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes are also called creeping rootstalks and rootstocks. Rhizomes develop from axillary buds and grow horizontally. The rhizome also retains the ability to allow new shoots to grow upwards.[3] If a rhizome is separated each piece may be able to give rise to a new plant. The plant uses the rhizome to store starches, proteins, and other nutrients. These nutrients become useful for the plant when new shoots must be formed or when the plant dies back for the winter.[3] This is a process known as vegetative reproduction and is used by farmers and gardeners to propagate certain plants. This also allows for lateral spread of grasses like bamboo and bunch grasses
[...More...]

"Rhizome" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.