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Nuskhuri
The GEORGIAN SCRIPTS are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language : ASOMTAVRULI, NUSKHURI and MKHEDRULI. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase , their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to right . Of the three scripts, Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
was the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia mostly used for the royal charters . Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
is the standard script for modern Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages , whereas Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
are used only in ceremonial religious texts and iconography by the Georgian Orthodox Church . Georgian scripts are unique in their appearance and their exact origin has never been established; however, in strictly structural terms, their alphabetical order largely corresponds to the Greek alphabet , with the exception of letters denoting uniquely Georgian sounds, which are grouped at the end. Originally consisting of 38 letters , Georgian is presently written in a 33-letter alphabet, as five letters are currently obsolete in that language. The number of Georgian letters used in other Kartvelian languages varies
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Alphabet
An ALPHABET is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language . This is in contrast to other types of writing systems , such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable ) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme , or semantic unit). The Proto-Canaanite
Proto-Canaanite
script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet , is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic , Greek , Latin , Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Hebrew , and possibly Brahmic . Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T. Daniels , an "alphabet" is a script that represents both vowels and consonants as letters equally. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet , which was developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet . In other alphabetic scripts such as the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic , letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants; such a script is also called an abjad
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Georgian Language
GEORGIAN (ქართული ენა tr . _kartuli ena_) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians . It is the official language of Georgia . Georgian is written in its own writing system , the Georgian script . Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans , Mingrelians and the Laz . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Dialects * 3 History * 4 Phonology * 4.1 Consonants * 4.2 Vowels * 4.3 Prosody * 4.4 Phonotactics * 5 Writing system * 5.1 Keyboard layout * 6 Grammar * 6.1 Morphology * 6.1.1 Morphophonology * 6.1.2 Inflection * 6.2 Syntax * 7 Vocabulary * 8 Examples * 8.1 Word formations * 8.2 Words that begin with multiple consonants * 9 Language example * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links * 13.1 Grammars * 13.2 Dictionaries * 13.3 Software * 13.4 Literature and culture CLASSIFICATIONGeorgian is the most pervasive of the Kartvelian languages , a family that also includes Svan and Megrelian (chiefly spoken in Northwest Georgia) and Laz (chiefly spoken along the Black Sea coast of Turkey, from Melyat, Rize to the Georgian frontier)
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Kartvelian Languages
The KARTVELIAN LANGUAGES (Georgian : ქართველური ენები) (also known as IBERIAN and formerly SOUTH CAUCASIAN ) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and spoken primarily in Georgia , with large groups of native speakers in Russia , Iran
Iran
, the United States
United States
, the European Union
European Union
, Israel
Israel
, and northeastern parts of Turkey
Turkey
. There are approximately 5.2 million speakers of Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
worldwide. It is not known to be related to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families . The first literary source in a Kartvelian language is the Georgian language inscriptions of Bir el Qutt , written in ancient Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script at the Georgian monastery near Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, which dates back to c. 430 AD. The Georgian script is the writing system used to write all Kartvelian languages, though the Laz language in Turkey
Turkey
is also written using a Latin script
Latin script

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Greek Alphabet
The GREEK ALPHABET has been used to write the Greek language
Greek language
since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet , and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts . Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega . Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between upper-case and lower-case forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era . Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the 5th century BC and today. Modern and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
use different diacritics
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, CODES FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF NAMES OF SCRIPTS, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one. Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages". Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes. 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags. For example, they can be used in HTML and XML to help Web browsers determine which typeface to use for foreign text. This way one could differentiate, for example, between Serbian written in the Cyrillic (sr-Cyrl) or Latin (sr-Latn) script, or mark romanized text as such
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Unicode Range
The Unicode Consortium (UC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) collaborate on the Universal Character Set (UCS). The UCS is an international standard to map characters used in natural language, mathematics, music, and other domains to machine readable values. By creating this mapping, the UCS enables computer software vendors to interoperate and transmit UCS encoded text strings from one to another. Because it is a universal map, it can be used to represent multiple languages at the same time. This avoids the confusion of using multiple legacy character encodings , which can result in the same sequence of codes having multiple meanings and thus be improperly decoded if the wrong one is chosen. UCS has a potential capacity to encode over 1 million characters. Each UCS character is abstractly represented by a code point , which is an integer between 0 and 1,114,111, used to represent each character within the internal logic of text processing software (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 _or_ 17 × 216, or hexadecimal 110000 code points). As of Unicode 10.0, released in June 2017, 280,016 (25%) of these code points are allocated, including 136,755 (12%) assigned characters, 137,468 (12.3%) reserved for private use , 2,048 for surrogates , and 66 designated non-characters , leaving 834,096 (75%) unassigned
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics . For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, , or with a letter plus diacritics, , depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription ; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either or , depending on the context and language
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Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation"), from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform", is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bitencodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16). Failed rendering of glyphs due to either missing fonts or missing glyphs in a font is a different issue that is not to be confused with mojibake. Symptoms of this failed rendering include blocks with the codepoint displayed in hexadecimal or using the generic replacement character �. Importantly, these replacements are _valid_ and are the result of correct error handling by the software
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as _The Unicode Standard_, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is _ Unicode
Unicode
10.0_. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium . Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software . The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems , XML , Java (and other programming languages), and the .NET Framework . Unicode
Unicode
can be implemented by different character encodings
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UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage
UNESCO established its LISTS OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE with the aim of ensuring the better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance. This list is published by Intergovernmental Committee for the safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and the members to this are elected by States parties meeting in UN general assembly. Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankind worldwide, the program aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangible heritage, which UNESCO has identified as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression. The list was established in 2008 when the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage took effect. As of 2010 the programme compiles two lists. The longer REPRESENTATIVE LIST OF THE INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF HUMANITY comprises cultural "practices and expressions help demonstrate the diversity of this heritage and raise awareness about its importance." The shorter LIST OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN NEED OF URGENT SAFEGUARDING is composed of those cultural elements that concerned communities and countries consider require urgent measures to keep them alive
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Georgia (country)
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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Unicase
A UNICASE or UNICAMERAL alphabet is one that has no case for its letters. Persian , Kannada , Tamil , Arabic , Old Hungarian , Hebrew , Georgian , and Hangul are unicase alphabets, while (modern) Latin , Greek , Cyrillic , and Armenian are _bicameral_, as they have two cases for each letter, _e.g._, B/b, Β/β, Б/б, Բ/բ. Individual characters can also be called unicameral if they are used as letters with a generally bicameral alphabet but have only one form for both cases; for example, ʻokina (ʻ), used in Polynesian languages, and glottal stop (ʔ) as used in Nuu-chah-nuulth . It is believed that all alphabets with case were once unicase. Latin, for example, used to be written with a unicase alphabet in imperial Roman times ; it was only later that scribes developed new sets of symbols for running text, which became the lower case of the Latin alphabet, while the letterforms of Ancient Rome came to be called capitals or upper case. The Georgian alphabet , on the other hand, has developed in the other direction: in the medieval period, Georgian also had two sets of letters available for bicameral writing, but the use of two cases later gave way to a unicameral system. The ecclesiastical form of the Georgian alphabet, Khutsuri , had an upper case called Asomtavruli (like the Ancient Roman capitals) and a lower case called Nuskhuri (like the medieval Latin scribal forms)
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Letter (alphabet)
A LETTER is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing . It is a visual representation of the smallest unit of spoken sound. Letters broadly correspond to phonemes in the spoken form of the language , although there is rarely a consistent, exact correspondence between letters and phonemes. Written signs in other writing systems are called syllabograms (which denote a syllable ) or logograms (which indicate a word or phrase). CONTENTS* 1 Definition and usage * 1.1 A classical definition * 2 History * 3 Types of letters * 3.1 Various scripts * 3.2 Upper and lower case * 3.3 Typeface and font * 4 Letter frequencies * 5 Footnotes * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITION AND USAGE Further information: Grapheme , Glyph , and Character (symbol) The contemporary English-language alphabet, known as Roman style, consists of twenty-six letters. Each letter corresponds to one or more sounds, and the letters are combined in the order of sounds to make words. A letter is classed as either a consonant or a vowel, depending on how its sound is produced (vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y and w). The basic Roman alphabet is used by about one hundred languages, with slight variations. Some versions contain as few as twenty-one characters, some as many as thirty. Letters have specific names associated with them, which may differ with language, dialect, and history
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Kingdom Of Georgia
The KINGDOM OF GEORGIA (Georgian : საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the GEORGIAN EMPIRE, was a medieval monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD . It reached its Golden Age of political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar the Great from 11th to 13th centuries. At the peak of its dominance, the kingdom's influence spanned from the south of modern-day Ukraine to the northern provinces of Iran , while also maintaining religious possessions in the Holy Land and Greece . A predominantly Christian , Georgian -speaking realm, it was the principal historical precursor of present-day Georgia . Lasting for several centuries, the kingdom fell to the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, but managed to re-assert sovereignty by the 1340s. The following decades were marked by Black Death spread by the nomads, as well as numerous invasions under the leadership of Tamerlane , who devastated the country's economy, population, and urban centers. The Kingdom's geopolitical situation further worsened after the Fall of Constantinople , which effectively marked the end of the Eastern Roman Empire , Georgia's traditional ally. As a result of these processes, by the end of the 15th century Georgia turned into an isolated, fractured Christian enclave, surrounded by hostile Turco-Iranic neighbors
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