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Numeral System
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols "11" to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases. The number the numeral represents is called its value. Ideally, a numeral system will:Represent a useful set of numbers (e.g. all integers, or rational numbers) Give every number represented a unique representation (or at least a standard representation) Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers.For example, the usual decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits, beginning with a non-zero digit
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Hokkien Numerals
The Hokkien
Hokkien
language has two regularly used sets of numerals, a colloquial or native Hokkien
Hokkien
system and literary system
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Burmese Numerals
Burmese numerals
Burmese numerals
(Burmese: မြန်မာဂဏန်း, [mjàɴmà ɡa̰náɴ]) are a set of numerals traditionally used in the Burmese language, although Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
are also used
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Korean Numerals
The Korean language
Korean language
has two regularly used sets of numerals, a native Korean system and Sino-Korean system.Contents1 Construction 2 Numerals (Cardinal) 3 Pronunciation 4 Constant suffixes used in Sino-Korean ordinal numerals 5 Substitution for disambiguation 6 Notes 7 References 8 See alsoConstruction[edit] For both native and Sino- Korean numerals, the teens (11 through 19) are represented by a combination of tens and the ones places. For instance, 15 would be sib-o (십오; 十五), but not usually il-sib-o in the Sino-Korean system, and yeol-daseot (열다섯) in native Korean. Twenty through ninety are likewise represented in this place-holding manner in the Sino-Korean system, while Native Korean has its own unique set of words, as can be seen in the chart below. The grouping of large numbers in Korean follow the Chinese tradition of myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000)
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Attic Numerals
Attic numerals
Attic numerals
were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals
Greek numerals
and acrophony.Decimal Symbol Greek numeral IPA1 Ι – –5 Π πέντε [pɛntɛ]10 Δ δέκα [deka]100 Η ἑκατόν [hɛkaton]1000 Χ χίλιοι / χιλιάς [kʰilioi / kʰilias]10000 Μ μύριον [myrion]The use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/
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Thai Numerals
Thai numerals
Thai numerals
(Thai: เลขไทย, IPA: lêːk̚ tʰaj) are a set of numerals traditionally used in Thailand, although the Arabic numerals are more common due to pervasive westernization of Thailand in the modern Rattanakosin
Rattanakosin
Era. Thai numerals
Thai numerals
follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system commonly used in the rest of the world
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Mongolian Numerals
Mongolian numerals
Mongolian numerals
are numerals developed from Tibetan numerals
Tibetan numerals
and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear script.[1][2]:28 They are still used on Mongolian tögrög
Mongolian tögrög
banknotes. Comparison table[edit]Hindu–Arabic numerals Mongolian numerals Tibetan numerals0 ᠐ ༠1 ᠑ ༡2 ᠒ ༢3 ᠓ ༣4 ᠔ ༤5 ᠕ ༥6 ᠖ ༦7 ᠗ ༧8 ᠘ ༨9 ᠙ ༩References[edit]^ Chrisomalis, Stephen (2010). Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521878180.  ^ "The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 – Core Specification: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 3 December 2017. This Mongolia-related article is a stub
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Vietnamese Numerals
Historically Vietnamese has two sets of numbers: one is etymologically native Vietnamese; the other uses Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. In the modern language the native Vietnamese vocabulary is used for both everyday counting and mathematical purposes. The Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary is used only in fixed expressions or in Sino-Vietnamese words. This is somewhat analogous to the way in which Latin and Greek numerals are used in modern English (e.g., the bi- in bicycle). Sino-Vietnamese words are also used for units of ten thousand or above, where native vocabulary was lacking.Contents1 Concept 2 Basic figures 3 Other figures 4 Ordinal numbers 5 Footnotes 6 See alsoConcept[edit] Among the languages of the Chinese cultural sphere, Japanese and Korean both use two numerical systems, one native and one Chinese-based. The Chinese-based vocabulary is the one in common use. In Vietnamese, on the other hand, the Chinese-based system is not in everyday use
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Javanese Numerals
The Javanese language
Javanese language
has a decimal numeral system with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called likuran. The basic numerals 1–10 have independent and combining forms, the latter derived via a suffix -ng. The combining forms are used to form the tens, hundreds, thousands, and millions. The numerals 1–5 and 10 have distinct high-register (halus, or in Javanese krama) and low register (ngoko) forms. The halus forms are listed below in italics. (Dasa 10 is derived from Sanskrit désa.) Like English, Javanese has compound forms for the teens; however, it also has a series of compound 'tweens', 21–29. The teens are based on a root -(wə)las, the tweens on -likur, and the tens are formed by the combining forms
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Āryabhaṭa Numeration
The Āryabhaṭa numeration
Āryabhaṭa numeration
is a system of numerals based on Sanskrit phonemes. It was introduced in the early 6th century in India by Āryabhaṭa, in the first chapter titled Gītika Padam of his Aryabhatiya. It attributes a numerical value to each syllable of the form consonant+vowel possible in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
phonology, from ka = 1 up to hau = 1018.Contents1 History 2 Example 3 Numeral table 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The basis of this number system is mentioned in the second stanza of the first chapter of Aryabhatiya. The Varga (Group/Class) letters ka to ma are to be placed in the varga (square) places (1st, 100th, 10000th, etc.) and Avarga letters like ya, ra, la .. have to be placed in Avarga places (10th, 1000th, 100000th, etc.). The Varga letters kak to ma have value from 1, 2, 3 .. up to 25 and Avarga letters ya to ha have value 30, 40, 50.. up to 100
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Dzongkha Numerals
Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, has two numeral systems, one vigesimal (base 20), and a modern decimal system. The vigesimal system remains in robust use. Ten is an auxiliary base: the -teens are formed with ten and the numerals 1–9. Vigesimal[edit]1 ciː 11 cu-ci2 ˈɲiː 12 cu-ɲi3 sum 13 cu-sum4 ʑi 14 cu-ʑi5 ˈŋa 15 ce-ŋa6 ɖʱuː 16 cu-ɖu7 dyn 17 cup-dỹ8 ɡeː 18 cop-ɡe9 ɡuː 19 cy-ɡu10 cu-tʰãm* 20 kʰe ciː*When it appears on its own, 'ten' is usually said cu-tʰãm 'a full ten'. In combinations it is simply cu. Factors of 20 are formed from kʰe. Intermediate factors of ten are formed with pɟʱe-da 'half to':30 kʰe pɟʱe-da ˈɲiː (a half to two score)40 kʰe ˈɲiː (two score)50 kʰe pɟʱe-da sum (a half to three score)100 kʰe ˈŋa (five score)200 kʰe cutʰãm (ten score)300 kʰe ceŋa (fifteen score)400 (20²) ɲiɕu is the next unit: ɲiɕu ciː 400, ɲiɕu ɲi 800, etc
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Balinese Numerals
The Balinese language
Balinese language
has an elaborate decimal numeral system.Contents1 Basic numerals 2 Teens, tweens, and tens 3 Higher numbers 4 See alsoBasic numerals[edit] The numerals 1–10 have basic, combining, and independent forms, many of which are formed through reduplication. The combining forms are used to form higher numbers
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Japanese Numerals
The system of Japanese numerals
Japanese numerals
is the system of number names used in the Japanese language. The Japanese numerals
Japanese numerals
in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals
Chinese numerals
and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10,000. Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Japanese: one is based on Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters
Chinese characters
and the other is based on the Japanese yamato kotoba (native words, kun'yomi readings)
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Kaktovik Inupiaq Numerals
Inuit, like other Eskimo languages (and Celtic and Mayan languages as well), uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has sub-bases at 5, 10, and 15. Arabic numerals, consisting of 10 distinct digits (0-9) are not adequate to represent a base-20 system. Students from Kaktovik, Alaska, came up with the Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals,[1] which has since gained wide use among Alaskan Iñupiaq, and is slowly gaining ground in other countries where dialects of the Inuit language are spoken.[2] The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the base-10 system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0
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Sinhala Numerals
Sinhalese belongs to the Indo-European language family with its roots deeply associated with Indo-Aryan sub family to which the languages such as Persian and Hindi belong. Although it is not very clear whether people in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
spoke a dialect of Prakrit at the time of arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there is enough evidence that Sinhala evolved from mixing of Sanskrit, Magadi (the language which was spoken in Magada Province of India where Lord Buddha was born) and local language which was spoken by people of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
prior to the arrival of Vijaya in Sri Lanka, the founder of Sinhala Kingdom.[1] It is also surmised that Sinhala had evolved from an ancient variant of Apabramsa (middle Indic) which is known as ‘Elu’
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Indian Numerals
Indian numerals
Indian numerals
are the symbols representing numbers in India
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