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Novel
A NOVEL is any relatively long, written work of narrative fiction , normally in prose , and typically published as a book. The genre has been described as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years," with its origins in classical Greece and Rome , in medieval and early modern romance , and in the tradition of the novella . The latter, an Italian word for a short story to distinguish it from a novel, has been used in English since the 18th century for a work that falls somewhere in between. Ian Watt , in _The Rise of the Novel_, suggested in 1957 that the novel first came into being in the early 18th century. Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
, author of _ Don Quixote
Don Quixote
_, is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era , the first part of which was published in 1605. The ROMANCE is a closely related long prose narrative. Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society"
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Novel (other)
A NOVEL is a long prose narrative. NOVEL may also refer to: * Novel
Novel
(album) , an album by Joey Pearson * Novel
Novel
(film) , a 2008 Malayalam film * Novel
Novel
(musician) (born 1981), American hip-hop artist * The Novel
Novel
, a 1991 novel by James A. Michener * Novel, Haute-Savoie , a commune in eastern France * Novels (Roman law) , a term for a new Roman law in the Byzantine era * Novel, Inc. , a video game studio and enterprise simulation developer * Novellae Constitutiones
Novellae Constitutiones
or The Novels, laws passed by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I * Novel: A Forum on Fiction , an academic journal * Novel, a minor musical side project of Adam Young SEE ALSO * Novell
Novell
, a software company * Novella (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title NOVEL. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Novel_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Narrative
A NARRATIVE or STORY is a report of connected events, real or imaginary , presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images , or both. The word derives from the Latin verb narrare, "to tell", which is derived from the adjective gnarus, "knowing" or "skilled". Narrative
Narrative
can be organized in a number of thematic or formal categories: non-fiction (such as definitively including creative non-fiction , biography , journalism , transcript poetry , and historiography ); fictionalization of historical events (such as anecdote , myth , legend , and historical fiction ); and fiction proper (such as literature in prose and sometimes poetry , such as short stories , novels , and narrative poems and songs , and imaginary narratives as portrayed in other textual forms, games, or live or recorded performances). Narrative
Narrative
is found in all forms of human creativity, art, and entertainment, including speech , literature , theatre , music and song , comics , journalism , film , television and video , video games , radio , gameplay , unstructured recreation , and performance in general, as well as some painting , sculpture , drawing , photography , and other visual arts , as long as a sequence of events is presented. Several art movements, such as modern art , refuse the narrative in favor of the abstract and conceptual. Oral storytelling is the earliest method for sharing narratives
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Fiction Writing
FICTION WRITING is the composition of non-factual prose texts. Fictional writing often is produced as a story meant to entertain or convey an author's point of view. The result of this may be a short story , novel , novella , screenplay , or drama , which are all types (though not the only types) of fictional writing styles. Different types of authors practice fictional writing, including novelists , playwrights , short story writers , dramatists and screenwriters . CONTENTS* 1 Categories of prose fiction * 1.1 Genre
Genre
fiction * 1.2 Literary fiction * 2 Elements of fiction * 2.1 Character * 2.2 Plot * 2.3 Setting * 2.4 Theme * 2.5 Style * 2.5.1 Narrator * 2.5.2 Point of view * 2.5.3 Tone * 2.5.4 Suspension of disbelief * 3 Authors\' views on writing * 4 Creative Writing 101: According to Kurt Vonnegut * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links CATEGORIES OF PROSE FICTION Main article: Fiction
Fiction
§ Categories of fiction GENRE FICTIONA genre is the subject matter or category that writers use. For instance, science fiction , fantasy and mystery fiction are genres. Genre
Genre
fiction also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre , in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre
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Prose
PROSE is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure , rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry . Where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical, such as a sentence or paragraph. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Etymology * 3 Origins * 4 Structure * 5 Types * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BACKGROUNDThere are critical debates on the construction of prose: "... the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is obscure". Prose in its simplicity and loosely defined structure is broadly adaptable to spoken dialogue, factual discourse, and to topical and fictional writing. It is systematically produced and published within literature , journalism (including newspapers , magazines , and broadcasting ), encyclopedias , film , history , philosophy , law , and in almost all forms and processes requiring human communications. ETYMOLOGYThe word "prose" first appears in English in the 14th century. It is derived from the Old French _prose_, which in turn originates in the Latin expression _prosa oratio_ (literally, straightforward or direct speech)
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Genre
GENRE (/ˈʒɒ̃rə/ , /ˈʒɒnrə/ or /ˈdʒɒnrə/ ; from French _genre_ , "kind" or "sort", from Latin _genus_ (stem _gener-_), Greek γένος, _génos_) is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genre
Genre
is most popularly known as a category of literature , music , or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented and the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed upon or socially inferred conventions. Some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre
Genre
began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature . Poetry
Poetry
, prose , and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story
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Classical Greece
CLASSICAL GREECE was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece by the Persian Empire and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and on the foundations of western civilization . Much of modern Western politics , artistic thought (architecture , sculpture), scientific thought, theatre , literature , and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history . In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece , the CLASSICAL PERIOD, sometimes called the HELLENIC PERIOD, corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC). The Classical period in this sense follows the Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period
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Classical Rome
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome
Rome
, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe
Europe
, North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods
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Medieval
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages . Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period
Migration Period
, including various Germanic peoples , formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate , an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad\'s successors . Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power
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Modern History
MODERN HISTORY, the MODERN PERIOD or the MODERN ERA, is the global historiographical approach to the timeframe after post-classical history . Modern history can be further broken down into periods: * The early modern period began approximately in the early 16th century; notable historical milestones included the European Renaissance and the Age of Discovery . * The late modern period began approximately in the mid-18th century; notable historical milestones included the French Revolution , American Revolution , the Industrial Revolution and the Great Divergence . It took all of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion; the next billion came just over a century later, in 1927
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Chivalric Romance
As a literary genre of high culture , ROMANCE or CHIVALRIC ROMANCE is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe . They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures , often of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest , yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the _chanson de geste _ and other kinds of epic , in which masculine military heroism predominates." Popular literature also drew on themes of romance, but with ironic , satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends , fairy tales , and history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, and Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel _ Don Quixote _. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, and the word _medieval_ evokes knights, distressed damsels, dragons, and other romantic tropes. Originally, romance literature was written in Old French , Anglo-Norman , Occitan , and Provençal , and later in Portuguese , in Castilian , in English , in Italian (particularly with the Sicilian poetry) and German . During the early 13th century, romances were increasingly written as prose
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Novella
A NOVELLA is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel . The English word "_novella_" derives from the Italian _novella_, feminine of _novello_, which means "new". The novella is a common literary genre in several European languages. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure * 3 Versus novel * 4 Versus novelette * 5 Notable examples * 6 Word counts * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe novella as a literary genre began developing in the early Renaissance by the Italian and French _literatura_, principally Giovanni Boccaccio , author of _ The Decameron _ (1353). _The Decameron_ featured 100 tales (novellas) told by 10 people (seven women and three men) fleeing the Black Death , by escaping from Florence to the Fiesole hills in 1348. This structure was then imitated by subsequent authors, notably the French queen Marguerite de Navarre , whose _Heptaméron _ (1559) included 72 original French tales and was modeled after the structure of _The Decameron_. Not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries did writers fashion the novella into a literary genre structured by precepts and rules, generally in a realistic mode . At that time, the Germans were the most active writers of the _novelle_ (German: "Novelle"; plural: "Novellen")
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Short Story
A SHORT STORY is a piece of prose fiction that can be read in one sitting. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood. In doing so, short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote , yet to a far lesser degree than a novel . While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques . Short stories have no set length. In terms of word count there is no official demarcation between an anecdote , a short story, and a novel. Rather, the form's parameters are given by the rhetorical and practical context in which a given story is produced and considered, so that what constitutes a short story may differ between genres, countries, eras, and commentators. Like the novel, the short story's predominant shape reflects the demands of the available markets for publication, and the evolution of the form seems closely tied to the evolution of the publishing industry and the submission guidelines of its constituent houses
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Ian Watt
IAN WATT (9 March 1917 – 13 December 1999) was a literary critic, literary historian and professor of English at Stanford University
Stanford University
. His The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (1957) is an important work in the history of the genre. Published in 1957, The Rise of the Novel is considered by many contemporary literary scholars as the seminal work on the origins of the novel, and an important study of literary realism . The book traces the rise of the modern novel to philosophical, economic and social trends and conditions that become prominent in the early 18th century. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Literary criticism * 3 Works by Watt * 3.1 Editor and with others * 4 Notes * 5 References BIOGRAPHYBorn 9 March 1917, in Windermere
Windermere
, Westmorland in England, Watt was educated at the Dover County School for Boys and at St John\'s College, Cambridge , where he earned first-class honours in English. Watt joined the British Army at the age of 22 and served with distinction in the Second World War
Second World War
as an infantry lieutenant from 1939 to 1946. He was wounded in the Battle of Singapore in February 1942 and listed as 'missing, presumed killed in action'
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Miguel De Cervantes
MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA (/sərˈvɒnteɪz/ or /sərˈvæntiːz/ ; Spanish: ; 29 September 1547 (assumed) – 22 April 1616) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His major work, _ Don Quixote _, is considered the first modern novel, a classic of Western literature , and is regarded among the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called _la lengua de Cervantes_ ("the language of Cervantes"). He has also been dubbed _El príncipe de los ingenios_ ("The Prince of Wits"). In 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal. Then he enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates . After five years of captivity, he was released on payment of a ransom by his parents and the Trinitarians , a Catholic religious order, and he returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel named _ La Galatea _. He worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada , and later as a tax collector for the government. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville
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Don Quixote
_DON QUIXOTE_ (/ˌdɒn kiːˈhoʊti/ Spanish: (_ listen ), fully titled THE INGENIOUS NOBLEMAN MISTER QUIXOTE OF LA MANCHA_ (Spanish: _EL INGENIOSO HIDALGO DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA_ ), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra . Published in two volumes, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote as the authors' choice for the "best literary work ever written". The story follows the adventures of a hidalgo named Mr. Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to set out to revive chivalry , undo wrongs, and bring justice to the world, under the name _ Don Quixote de la Mancha_. He recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza , as his squire, who often employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote's rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood . Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story
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