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Noun
A noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective . Verbs and adjectives cannot. In the following, an asterisk (*) in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical
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Interrogative
INTERROGATIVE is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions . Thus, an INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE is a sentence whose grammatical form shows that it is a question. Such sentences are sometimes said to exhibit an INTERROGATIVE MOOD—thus treating interrogative as one of the grammatical mood . This applies particularly to languages that use different inflected verb forms to make questions. Interrogative sentences can serve as yes–no questions or as wh-questions, the latter being formed using an interrogative word such as who, which, where or how to specify the information required. Different languages have different ways of forming questions, including the use of different word order and the insertion of interrogative particles . Questions are also frequently marked by intonation , in particular a rising intonation pattern – in some languages this may be the sole method of distinguishing a yes–no question from a declarative statement
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Causative
In linguistics, a CAUSATIVE (abbreviated CAUS) is a valency-increasing operation that indicates that a subject causes someone or something else to do or be something, or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event. Prototypically, it brings in a new argument (the causer), A, into a transitive clause, with the original S becoming the O. All languages have ways to express causation but differ in the means. Most, if not all, languages have lexical causative forms (such as English rise → raise, lie → lay, sit → set). Some languages also have morphological devices (such as inflection ) that change verbs into their causative forms or adjectives into verbs of becoming. Other languages employ periphrasis , with control verbs , idiomatic expressions or auxiliary verbs . There tends to be a link between how "compact" a causative device is and its semantic meaning
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Periphrasis
In linguistics , PERIPHRASIS (IPA British English /pᵻˈrɪfrəsɪs/, U.S. English /pəˈrɪfrəsɪs/ ) is a device by which grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more free morphemes (typically one or more function words accompanying a content word ), instead of by inflectional affixes or derivation . Periphrastic forms are analytic , whereas the absence of periphrasis is a characteristic of synthesis . While periphrasis concerns all categories of syntax, it is most visible with verb catenae . The verb catenae of English are highly periphrastic. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Periphrasis across languages * 3 Catenae * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References EXAMPLESThe distinction between inflected and periphrastic forms is usually illustrated across distinct languages. However, comparative and superlative forms of adjectives (and adverbs) in English provide a straightforward illustration of the phenomenon
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Intensifier
INTENSIFIER (abbreviated INT) is a linguistic term (but not a proper lexical category ) for a modifier that makes no contribution to the propositional meaning of a clause but serves to enhance and give additional emotional context to the word it modifies. Intensifiers are grammatical expletives , specifically expletive attributives (or, equivalently, attributive expletives or attributive-only expletives; they also qualify as expressive attributives), because they function as semantically vacuous filler. Characteristically, English draws intensifiers from a class of words called degree modifiers, words that quantify the idea they modify. More specifically, they derive from a group of words called adverbs of degree, also known as degree adverbs. However, when used grammatically as intensifiers, these words cease to be degree adverbs , because they no longer quantify the idea they modify; instead, they emphasize it emotionally
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Expletive Attributive
An EXPLETIVE ATTRIBUTIVE is an adjective or adverb (or adjectival or adverbial phrase) that does not contribute to the propositional meaning of a sentence, but is used to intensify its emotional force. Often such words or phrases are regarded as profanity or "bad language", though there are also inoffensive expletive attributives. The word is derived from the Latin verb explere, meaning "to fill", and it was originally introduced into English in the seventeenth century for various kinds of padding. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Usage * 3 Infixation * 4 References ETYMOLOGYExpletive comes from the Latin verb explere, meaning "to fill", via expletivus, "filling out". It was introduced into English in the seventeenth century for various kinds of padding—the padding out of a book with peripheral material, the addition of syllables to a line of poetry for metrical purposes, and so forth. Use of expletive for such a meaning is now rare
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English Prefix
ENGLISH PREFIXES are affixes (i.e., bound morphemes that provide lexical meaning) that are added before either simple roots or complex bases (or operands) consisting of (a) a root and other affixes, (b) multiple roots, or (c) multiple roots and other affixes. Examples of these follow: * undo (consisting of prefix un- and root do) * untouchable (consisting of prefix un-, root touch, and suffix -able) * non-childproof (consisting of prefix non-, root child, and root proof) * non-childproofable (consisting of prefix non-, root child, root proof, and suffix -able)English words may consist of multiple prefixes: anti-pseudo-classicism (containing both an anti- prefix and a pseudo- prefix). In English, all prefixes are derivational . This contrasts with English suffixes, which may be either derivational or inflectional . CONTENTS * 1 Selectional restrictions * 2 Changes in lexical category * 3 Native vs
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Suffix
In linguistics , a SUFFIX (also sometimes termed POSTFIX or ENDING) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings , which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, suffixes are called AFFORMATIVES, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies
Indo-European studies
, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root ). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information. An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a DESINENCE or a GRAMMATICAL SUFFIX . Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation
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Vowel Length
In linguistics , VOWEL LENGTH is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme , or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English . While not distinctive in most other dialects of English , vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Arabic , Finnish , Fijian , Kannada , Japanese , Old English , Scottish Gaelic and Vietnamese . It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English . It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese , unlike other varieties of Chinese . Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between SHORT VOWELS and LONG VOWELS
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Great Vowel Shift
The GREAT VOWEL SHIFT was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English. Through this vowel shift , all Middle English long vowels changed their pronunciation. English spelling was first becoming standardized in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the Great Vowel Shift
Great Vowel Shift
is responsible for the fact that English spellings now often strongly deviate in their representation of English pronunciations
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Intensive Word Form
In grammar, an INTENSIVE WORD FORM is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root. Intensive formations, for example, existed in Proto-Indo-European , and in many of the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
. GENERALLY AN ADVERBIntensives are generally used as adverbs. In general, they are placed before the verb that they modify, usually a form of the "be" verb. An example in common usage today is "the heck"; as in "What the heck is going on here?" "The heck" can be left out of the sentence without changing the meaning; however, the sentence is less intense without it. There are many varieties that are equivalent to "the heck" that are generally considered vulgar or otherwise inappropriate in polite conversation. In modern usage is also "the hell" or "the fuck"
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English Phonology
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation , both historically and from dialect to dialect . In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (but not identical) phonological system. Among other things, most dialects have vowel reduction in unstressed syllables and a complex set of phonological features that distinguish fortis and lenis consonants (stops , affricates , and fricatives ). Most dialects of English preserve the consonant /w/ (spelled w) and many preserve /θ, ð/ (spelled th), while most other Germanic languages have shifted them to /v/ and /t, d/: compare English will /wɪl/ ( listen ) and then /ðɛn/ ( listen ) with German will ( listen ) ("want") and denn ( listen )
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Portmanteau
A PORTMANTEAU (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ ( listen ), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/ ; plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux /-ˈtoʊz/ ) or PORTMANTEAU WORD is a linguistic blend of words , in which part