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Northrop F-5
The NORTHROP F-5A AND F-5B FREEDOM FIGHTER and the F-5E AND F-5F TIGER II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation
Northrop Corporation
. Being smaller and simpler than contemporaries such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II , the F-5 cost less to both procure and operate, making it a popular export aircraft. The F-5 started life as a privately funded light fighter program by Northrop in the 1950s. The design team wrapped a small, highly aerodynamic fighter around two compact and high-thrust General Electric J85
General Electric J85
engines, focusing on performance and low cost of maintenance. Though primarily designed for the day air superiority role, the aircraft is also a capable ground-attack platform. The F-5A entered service in the early 1960s. During the Cold War , over 800 were produced through 1972 for U.S. allies
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North American Aviation
NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer , responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter , the B-25 Mitchell bomber , the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane , and the XB-70 , as well as Apollo Command and Service Module , the second stage of the Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket , the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
orbiter and the B-1 Lancer . Through a series of mergers and sales, North American Aviation became part of North American Rockwell , which later became Rockwell International and is now part of Boeing
Boeing

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North American P-51 Mustang
The NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION P-51 MUSTANG is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II
World War II
, the Korean War and other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in 1940 by North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission . The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October
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Military Assistance Program
The MUTUAL DEFENSE ASSISTANCE ACT was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 6 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first U.S. military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era , and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman's signing of the Economic Cooperation Act (the Marshall Plan ), on April 3, 1948, which provided non-military, economic reconstruction and development aid to Europe. The Act was reauthorized in 1950, but in 1951, it and the Economic Cooperation Act were succeeded by the Mutual Security Act , and its newly created independent agency, the Mutual Security Administration, to supervise all foreign aid programs, including both military assistance programs and non-military, economic assistance programs that bolstered the defense capability of U.S. allies. President Harry S. Truman inspecting a brand new M41 Walker Bulldog Prototype Tank
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Edwards Air Force Base
EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE (AFB) (IATA : EDW, ICAO : KEDW, FAA
FAA
LID : EDW) is a United States Air Force
United States Air Force
installation in southern California
California
, located approximately 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Lancaster and 15 miles (24 km) east of Rosamond . It is the home of the Air Force Test Center and is the Air Force Materiel Command center of excellence for conducting and supporting research and development of flight, as well as testing and evaluation of aerospace systems from concept to combat. It operates the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School
School
and is home to NASA
NASA
's Armstrong Flight Research Center and considerable test activities conducted by America's commercial aerospace industry
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United States Air Force
Department of Defense * Department of the Air Force HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia , U.S. MOTTO(S) "Aim High ... Fly-Fight-Win" "Integrity first, Service before self, Excellence in all we do" COLORS Ultramarine blue , Golden yellow MARCH The U.S. Air Force Play (help ·info ) ANNIVERSARIES 18 September ENGAGEMENTS See list * Mexican Expedition (As Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps ) World War I
World War I
(As Aviation Section, U.S
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Dissimilar Air Combat Training
DISSIMILAR AIR COMBAT TRAINING (DACT) was introduced as a formal part of US air combat training after disappointing aerial combat exchange rates in the Vietnam War . Traditionally, pilots would undertake air combat training against similar aircraft. For example, pilots of F-8s would seldom train against F-4 Phantom IIs , and almost never against A-4 Skyhawks and never as part of a formal syllabus. From 1965 to 1968, US pilots found themselves over the skies of North Vietnam pitted against the smaller, more nimble subsonic Soviet MiG-17 and the supersonic MiG-21 . US pilots in USAF F-105 Thunderchiefs were barely able to exceed parity and pilots in Phantoms and Crusaders were not able to achieve the hugely lopsided win/loss ratio achieved over Korea and in World War II. In fact, Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) was not practised by all fighter squadrons for a variety of reasons
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Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star
The LOCKHEED T-33 SHOOTING STAR (or T-BIRD) is an American jet trainer aircraft . It was produced by Lockheed and made its first flight in 1948 piloted by Tony LeVier . The T-33 was developed from the Lockheed P-80/F-80 starting as TP-80C/TF-80C in development, then designated T-33A. It was used by the U.S. Navy initially as TO-2 then TV-2, and after 1962, T-33B. The last operator of the T-33, the Bolivian Air Force, retired the type in July 2017, after 44 years of service. CONTENTS * 1 Design and development * 2 Operational history * 2.1 U.S. Air Force and U.S
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ADM-20 Quail
The MCDONNELL ADM-20 QUAIL was a subsonic , jet powered, air-launched decoy cruise missile built by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation. The Quail was designed to be launched by the Boeing
Boeing
B-52 Stratofortress strategic bomber and its original United States
United States
Air Force designation was GAM-72 (GAM standing for Guided Aircraft Missile). CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Design * 3 Operational history * 4 Variants * 5 Operator * 6 Survivors * 7 See also * 8 References * 8.1 Citations * 8.2 Bibliography DEVELOPMENTIn 1955 the USAF started a major effort to construct decoy missiles . The goal of this effort was to improve the ability of strategic bombers to penetrate air-defense systems
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Fighter Mafia
The FIGHTER MAFIA was a controversial group of U.S. Air Force officers and civilian defense analysts who, in the 1970s, advocated for fighter design criteria that challenged the conventional thinking and ideologies of the time: * Air Force generals established the wrong criteria for combat effectiveness, ignoring combat history. * High technology and the focus on "higher, faster, and farther" increases costs and decreases effectiveness. The mafia argued for cheaper and better planes. * Air Force bureaucracies were corrupt as they did not conduct honest testing on weapons before buying them and deploying them in the field. * The focus should be on close air support and the use of combined arms to support maneuver warfare rather than interdiction bombing
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Escort Carrier
The ESCORT CARRIER or ESCORT AIRCRAFT CARRIER (hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy
United States Navy
(USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
and Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
Air Force , and the United States Navy
United States Navy
in World War II
World War II
. They were typically half the length and a third the displacement of larger fleet carriers . While they were slower, carried fewer planes and were less well armed and armored, escort carriers were cheaper and could be built quickly, which was their principal advantage. Escort carriers could be completed in greater numbers as a stop-gap when fleet carriers were scarce
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Pierre Sprey
PIERRE SPREY, born in 1937, is a defense analyst and record producer. As a defense analyst working together with John Boyd and Thomas P. Christie , he was a member of the self-dubbed 'Fighter Mafia ', which advocated the use of energy–maneuverability theory in fighter design. Sprey has been described as having "helped conceptualize the design of the F-16 and A-10
A-10
fighters." Sprey was born in Nice
Nice
, France, and raised in New York. He was educated at Yale , where he studied aeronautical engineering and French literature
French literature
, and also at Cornell , where he studied mathematical statistics and operations research . He subsequently worked at Grumman
Grumman
Aircraft as a consulting statistician on space and commercial transportation projects
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J79
The GENERAL ELECTRIC J79 is an axial-flow turbojet engine built for use in a variety of fighter and bomber aircraft and a supersonic cruise missile. The J79 was produced by General Electric Aircraft Engines in the United States, and under license by several other companies worldwide. A commercial version, designated the CJ805 , powered the Convair 880 , while an aft-turbofan derivative, the CJ805-23, powered the Convair 990 airliners and a single Sud Aviation Caravelle intended to demonstrate to the U.S. market the benefits of a bypass engine over the existing Avon turbojet. In 1959 the gas generator of the J79 was developed as a stationary 10MW-class (13,000 bhp) free-turbine turboshaft engine for naval power, power generation, and industrial use, called the LM1500 . Its first application was in the research hydrofoil USS Plainview
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Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
The BOEING B-52 STRATOFORTRESS is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber . The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing
Boeing
, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(USAF) since the 1950s. The bomber is capable of carrying up to 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg) of weapons, and has a typical combat range of more than 8,800 miles (14,080 km) without aerial refueling. Beginning with the successful contract bid in June 1946, the B-52 design evolved from a straight wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype YB-52 with eight turbojet engines and swept wings . The B-52 took its maiden flight in April 1952. Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War
Cold War
-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36
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North American F-100 Super Sabre
The NORTH AMERICAN F-100 SUPER SABRE was an American supersonic jet fighter aircraft that served with the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
(USAF) from 1954 to 1971 and with the Air National Guard
Air National Guard
(ANG) until 1979. The first of the Century Series of USAF jet fighters, it was the first USAF fighter capable of supersonic speed in level flight . The F-100 was designed by North American Aviation
North American Aviation
as a higher performance follow-on to the F-86 Sabre air superiority fighter. Adapted as a fighter-bomber, the F-100 was supplanted by the Mach two-class F-105 Thunderchief for strike missions over North Vietnam. The F-100 flew extensively over South Vietnam as the air force's primary close air support jet until being replaced by the more efficient subsonic LTV A-7 Corsair II
LTV A-7 Corsair II

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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine , a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars
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