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Northrop F-5
The NORTHROP F-5A AND F-5B FREEDOM FIGHTER and the F-5E AND F-5F TIGER II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation . Being smaller and simpler than contemporaries such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II , the F-5 cost less to both procure and operate, making it a popular export aircraft. The F-5 started life as a privately funded light fighter program by Northrop in the 1950s. The design team wrapped a small, highly aerodynamic fighter around two compact and high-thrust General Electric J85 engines, focusing on performance and low cost of maintenance. Though primarily designed for the day air superiority role, the aircraft is also a capable ground-attack platform. The F-5A entered service in the early 1960s. During the Cold War , over 800 were produced through 1972 for U.S. allies. Though the USAF had no acknowledged need for a light fighter, it did procure roughly 1,200 Northrop T-38 Talon trainer aircraft, which were directly based on the F-5A. After winning the International Fighter Aircraft competition in 1970, a program aimed at providing effective low-cost fighters to American allies, Northrop introduced the second-generation F-5E Tiger II in 1972
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Swiss Air Force
The SWISS AIR FORCE (German : _Schweizer Luftwaffe_; French : _Forces aériennes suisses_; Italian : _Forze aeree svizzere_; Romansh : _Aviatica militara svizra_) is the air component of the Swiss Armed Forces , established on 31 July 1914 as part of the army and in October 1936 an independent service. In peacetime, Dübendorf is the operational air force headquarters. The Swiss Air Force operates from several fixed bases (see current status) but its personnel are also trained to carry out air operations from temporary highway airstrips. In case of crisis or war, several stretches of road are specially prepared for this option
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Light Fighter
LIGHT FIGHTERS are fighter aircraft towards the low end of the practical range of weight, cost, and complexity over which fighters are fielded. The term LIGHTWEIGHT FIGHTER is more commonly used in the modern literature, and by example tends to imply somewhat more capable aircraft than light fighters at the very low end of the practical weight range, but the terms overlap and are sometimes used interchangeably. Whatever term is used, the concept is to be on the generally lower half of the practical range, but still with carefully selected competitive features, in order to project highly effective force per unit of budget via an efficient design. As well designed lightweight fighters have proven able to match or beat heavier aircraft plane for plane for many missions, and to significantly excel them in budgetary efficiency, light/lightweight fighters have proven to be a strategically valuable concept. Attempting to scale this efficiency to still lower cost, some manufacturers have in recent years adopted the term “light fighter” to also refer to light primarily air-to-ground attack aircraft , some of which are modified trainer designs. A key design goal of light/lightweight fighter design is to satisfy standard air-to-air fighter effectiveness requirements
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Northrop Corporation
NORTHROP CORPORATION was a leading United States aircraft manufacturer from its formation in 1939 until its 1994 merger with Grumman
Grumman
to form Northrop Grumman . The company is known for its development of the flying wing design, most successfully the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. Northrop Corporation
Northrop Corporation
F-5E Tiger II of the Swiss Air Force
Swiss Air Force
arrives at the 2016 RIAT
RIAT
, England
England
CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Aircraft
Aircraft
* 3 Unmanned aerial vehicles * 4 Missiles * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY Jack Northrop founded three companies using his name. The first was the AVION CORPORATION in 1927, which was absorbed in 1929 by the United Aircraft
Aircraft
and Transport Corporation as a subsidiary named "Northrop Aviation Corporation" (and later acquired by Boeing
Boeing
). The parent company moved its operations to Kansas
Kansas
in 1931, and so Jack, along with Donald Douglas , established a "Northrop Corporation" located in El Segundo, California , which produced several successful designs, including the Northrop Gamma and Northrop Delta
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United States Navy
U.S. Department of Defense * Dept. of the Navy
Navy
(since 1798) HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County, Virginia
, U.S
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Republic Of China Air Force
The REPUBLIC OF CHINA AIR FORCE (ROCAF; Chinese : 中華民國空軍; pinyin : _Zhōnghuá Mínguó Kōngjūn_) is the aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces . The ROCAF's primary mission is the defense of the airspace over and around Taiwan
Taiwan
. Priorities of the ROCAF include the development of long range reconnaissance and surveillance networks, integrating C4ISTAR systems to increase battle effectiveness, procuring counterstrike weapons, next generation fighters, and hardening airfields and other facilities to survive a surprise attack. In May 2005, the Ministry of National Defense indicated its intention to transfer command of all defensive missile systems to the ROCAF, while future offensive missiles would be placed under a newly formed missile command. As of 2006, all medium and long range SAM units were transferred from ROC Army's Missile Command to ROCAF, while ROCAF's airbase security units were transferred to ROC Army Military Police. But it's revealed in January 2011, 5 years of problems of integrating those long range ex-ROC Army SAM units into ROCAF has forced ROCAF high command to return those units back to ROC Army's Missile Command. Missile Command is now directly under Defense Ministry's GHQ control
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Republic Of Korea Air Force
The REPUBLIC OF KOREA AIR FORCE (ROKAF; Korean : 대한민국 공군; Hanja : 大韓民國 空軍; Romanization : _Daehanminguk Gong-gun_), also known as the ROK AIR FORCE, is the aerial warfare service branch of South Korea , operating under the Republic of Korea Ministry of National Defense . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Korean War * 1.3 1960s * 1.4 1970s * 1.5 1980s * 1.6 1990s * 1.7 2000s * 1.8 2010s * 2 Order of battle * 3 Current projects * 3.1 F-X fighter program * 3.2 E-X Early warning aircraft program * 3.3 KF-X future fighter program * 3.4 Mid-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV) * 3.5 HALE (High Altitude, Long Endurance) UAV * 3.6 Aerial tanker * 4 Aircraft * 4.1 Current inventory * 4.2 Retired aircraft * 4.3 Air-defense weapons * 5 Military ranks * 5.1 Warrant officers * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY P-51 Mustangs were among the first fighter aircraft for the ROKAF The buhwal is South Korea's first indigenously-built aircraft (1953) A F-4D armed with AIM-9 missiles at Daegu Air Base in January 1979. U.S. and South Korean F-16s demonstrate an 'Elephant Walk ' as they taxi down the runway at Kunsan Air Base , South Korea in 2012
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Islamic Republic Of Iran Air Force
The ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN AIR FORCE (IRIAF; Persian : نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎) is the aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army . The present Air Force came into being in the early 1980s when the former Imperial Iranian Air Force was renamed. The Air Force has attempted with some success to maintain in service the large number of American-built aircraft which Iran acquired during the Shah 's regime. The Air Force has turned to purchases of Soviet and Chinese aircraft, as well as pressing ex-Iraqi aircraft into service, and indigenously built aircraft, in order to maintain a capable force. As of June 2016, the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force possesses 348 fighters, making it the ninth most powerful air arm in the world, on paper
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United States Dollar
UNITED STATES East Timor
East Timor
Ecuador
Ecuador
El Salvador
El Salvador
Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau
Palau
Panama
Panama
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
3 non-U.S
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Northrop T-38 Talon
The NORTHROP T-38 TALON is a two-seat, twin-engined supersonic jet trainer . It was the world's first supersonic trainer and is also the most produced. The T-38 remains in service as of 2017 in several air forces. The United States Air Force (USAF) operates the most T-38s. In addition to training USAF pilots, the T-38 is used by NASA
NASA
. The U.S. Naval Test Pilot School is the principal US Navy operator (other T-38s were previously used as USN aggressor aircraft until replaced by the similar Northrop F-5
Northrop F-5
Tiger II ). Pilots of other NATO
NATO
nations fly the T-38 in joint training programs with USAF pilots. As of 2017, the T-38 has been in service for over 50 years with its original operator, the United States
United States
Air Force. CONTENTS * 1 Design and development * 2 Operational history * 2.1 Military * 2.2 NASA
NASA
* 2.3 Accidents * 2.4 Replacement * 2.5 Civil * 3 Variants * 4 Operators * 5 Former operators * 6 Aircraft on display * 7 Specifications (T-38A) * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTIn 1952 Northrop began work on a fighter project, the Fang , with shoulder-mounted delta wing and a single engine. The proposed General Electric J79 engine, weighing nearly two tons, meant the resulting aircraft would be large and expensive
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Canadair CF-5
The CANADAIR CF-5 (officially designated the CF-116 FREEDOM FIGHTER) is the Canadair
Canadair
licensed-built version of the American Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter aircraft primarily for the Canadian Forces (as the CF-5) and the Royal Netherlands Air Force (as the NF-5). The CF-5 was upgraded periodically throughout its service career in Canada. The Canadian Forces retired the type in 1995, although CF-5s continue to be used by other countries. The CF-5 was ordered by the Royal Canadian Air Force , which became part of the Canadian Forces on 1 February 1968. The new unified force took delivery of the first CF-5s (it was almost universally referred to as the CF-5 except in official documentation ) at the end of 1968. Production by Canadair
Canadair
for the Canadian Forces was 89 single-seat aircraft, 46 dual-seat aircraft and 75 single-seat with 30 dual-seat aircraft for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, a total production of 240. Some surplus Canadian aircraft were sold to Venezuela
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Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration
The NASA
NASA
SHAPED SONIC BOOM DEMONSTRATION, also known as the SHAPED SONIC BOOM EXPERIMENT, was a two-year program that used a Northrop F-5 E with a modified fuselage to demonstrate that the aircraft's shock wave, and accompanying sonic boom , can be shaped, and thereby reduced. The program was a joint effort between NASA's Langley Research Center , Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base , California and Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
. The program became, at that time (2003 according to Supersonic transport ), the most extensive study on the sonic boom. After measuring the 1,300 recordings, some taken inside the shock wave by a chase plane, the SSBD demonstrated a reduction in boom by about one-third. Several of the flights included NASA
NASA
Dryden's F-15B research testbed aircraft following to measure the F-5E's shock wave signature close-up. During the flights, many shock wave patterns were measured by the F-15B at various distances and orientations from the F-5E. An unmodified F-5E flew a few seconds behind the demonstration aircraft to provide a baseline sonic boom measurement to validate the reduced boom produced by the demonstrator. A U.S
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Northrop F-20 Tigershark
The NORTHROP F-20 TIGERSHARK (initially F-5G) was a privately financed light fighter , designed and built by Northrop . Its development began in 1975 as a further evolution of Northrop's F-5E Tiger II , featuring a new engine that greatly improved overall performance, and a modern avionics suite including a powerful and flexible radar . Compared with the F-5E, the F-20 was much faster, gained beyond-visual-range air-to-air capability, and had a full suite of air-to-ground modes capable of firing most U.S. weapons. With these improved capabilities, the F-20 became competitive with contemporary fighter designs such as the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon , but was much less expensive to purchase and operate. Much of the F-20's development was carried out under a US Department of Defense (DoD) project called "FX". FX sought to develop fighters that would be capable in combat with the latest Soviet aircraft, but excluding sensitive front-line technologies used by the United States Air Force 's own aircraft. FX was a product of the Carter administration 's military export policies, which aimed to provide foreign nations with high quality equipment without the risk of US front-line technology falling into Soviet hands
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HESA Saeqeh
The HESA SAEQEH (Persian : صاعقه‎‎, "thunderbolt"), alternatively spelt SA\'EQEH; SAEGHEH, or SAEQEH-80, is an Iranian built single-seat jet fighter, derived from the American Northrop F-5 . A joint product of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force and the Iranian Ministry of Defence, it is the second generation of the Iranian Azarakhsh fighter . Saeqeh aircraft were tested successfully in Iran
Iran
20 September 2007. CONTENTS* 1 Design and development * 1.1 Saeqeh-2 * 2 Operators * 3 Specifications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTThe first prototype of the jet was shown on state television making a test flight in July 2004. According to the translation by the Washington-based Middle East Media Research Institute
Middle East Media Research Institute
(MEMRI) of a broadcast on Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
News Network (IRINN), the Saeqeh became operational on September 6, 2006, when it participated in an Iranian military wargame exercise called "Blow of Zulfiqar ". In that exercise, which began on August 19, 2006, the new fighter carried out actions described as "a mission to bomb virtual enemy targets", and "a mock bombing mission". Two prototypes, which appeared to differ from the one that had been shown previously, conducted a fly-past at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport on 20 September 2007
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HESA Azarakhsh
The HESA AZARAKHSH (Persian : آذرخش‎‎ Āzaraxš, "lightning") is a jet fighter aircraft manufactured by the Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company (HESA). It is widely regarded as a reverse engineered variant of the American Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter/Tiger II. It is Iran's first domestically manufactured combat jet fighter. The Azarakhsh was developed in Isfahan by the Iranian army, the Iranian Defense Ministry, and aircraft-manufacturing company HESA. CONTENTS* 1 Design and development * 1.1 Azarakhsh * 1.2 Saeqeh * 2 See also * 3 References DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENTIn April 1997 Iranian Brigadier General Arasteh, a deputy head of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, declared that Iran
Iran
had successfully designed, constructed and tested its first fighter aircraft. By late 1997 Iran
Iran
had begun mass-producing the aircraft and by mid-2000 four aircraft were said to be undergoing operational tests, with production proceeding at a rate of around ten aircraft per year. Iran
Iran
has yet to release any additional information about the aircraft and its capabilities are unknown. On May 17, 2000, Iran's acting commander of the Air Force said that Azarakhsh had reached mass-production stage. On August 5, 2007, Azarakhsh conducted a successful test flight
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Supersonic
SUPERSONIC TRAVEL is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1). For objects traveling in dry air of a temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) at sea level , this speed is approximately 343 m/s , 1,125 ft/s , 768 mph , 667 knots , or 1,235 km/h . Speeds greater than five times the speed of sound (Mach 5) are often referred to as hypersonic . Flights during which only some parts of the air surrounding an object, such as the ends of rotor blades, reach supersonic speeds are called transonic . This occurs typically somewhere between Mach 0.8 and Mach 1.23. Sounds are traveling vibrations in the form of pressure waves in an elastic medium. In gases, sound travels longitudinally at different speeds, mostly depending on the molecular mass and temperature of the gas, and pressure has little effect. Since air temperature and composition varies significantly with altitude, Mach numbers for aircraft may change despite a constant travel speed. In water at room temperature supersonic speed can be considered as any speed greater than 1,440 m/s (4,724 ft/s). In solids, sound waves can be polarized longitudinally or transversely and have even higher velocities. Supersonic fracture is crack motion faster than the speed of sound in a brittle material
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