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Northern Ireland
NORTHERN IRELAND (Irish : Tuaisceart Éireann ( listen ); Ulster-Scots : Norlin Airlann) is a country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
located in the north-east of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. It has been variously described as a country, province, region, or "part" of the United Kingdom, amongst other terms. Northern Ireland
Ireland
shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. In 2011 , its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK\'s population . Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME (French : Temps universel coordonné), abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Time
(GMT), but GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments
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Black People
BLACK PEOPLE is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, "black" is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, and as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and these social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, and the social criteria for "blackness" vary
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Asian People
ASIAN PEOPLE or ASIATIC PEOPLE are people who descend from a portion of Asia
Asia
's population . A variety of definitions and geographical data are presented by organizations and individuals for classifying the ethnic groups in Asia
Asia

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White People
WHITE PEOPLE is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The contemporary usage of "white people" or a "white race" as a large group of (mainly European) populations contrasting with "black ", American Indian (sometimes called red), "colored " or non-white originated in the 17th century. It is today particularly used as a racial classifier in multiracial societies, such as North Africa
North Africa
, United States
United States
( White American ), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
( White British ), Brazil
Brazil
( White Brazilian
White Brazilian
), South Africa
Africa
( White South African ) and Middle East
Middle East

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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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ISO 4217
ISO 4217
ISO 4217
is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables: * Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list * Table A.2 – Current funds codes * Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies "> A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand
Thailand
Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW The first two letters of the code are the two letters of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes (which are also used as the basis for national top-level domains on the Internet
Internet
) and the third is usually the initial of the currency itself
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Gross Value Added
GROSS VALUE ADDED (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy , in economics . In national accounts GVA is output minus intermediate consumption ; it is a balancing item of the national accounts' production account . RELATIONSHIP TO GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCTGVA is linked as a measurement to gross domestic product (gdp), as both are measures of output
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the proceeds to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to use those dollars directly in purchasing the market basket of goods. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law
International law
defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Right- And Left-hand Traffic
The terms RIGHT-HAND TRAFFIC (RHT) AND LEFT-HAND TRAFFIC (LHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic , unless otherwise directed, to keep to the right or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the RULE OF THE ROAD. 163 countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT . Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads. In the early 1900s some countries including Canada
Canada
, Spain
Spain
, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities . Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Anno Domini
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of The Journal of Paris , suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895
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