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Northern Europe
Northern Europe
Europe
is the general term for the geographical region in Europe
Europe
that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and occasionally Ireland, Britain, northern Germany, northern Belarus
Belarus
and northwest Russia. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps
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Subarctic
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
immediately south of the true Arctic
Arctic
and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands. Generally, subarctic regions fall between 50°N and 70°N latitude, depending on local climates.Contents1 Climate and soils 2 Economy 3 See also 4 External linksClimate and soils[edit] Monthly temperatures are above 10 °C (50 °F) for at least one and at most three months of the year. Precipitation tends to be low due to the low moisture content of the cold air. Precipitation is typically greater in warmer months, with a summer maximum ranging from moderate in North America
North America
to extreme in the Russian Far East
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Fennoscandia
Coordinates: 63°00′00″N 17°00′00″E / 63.0000°N 17.0000°E / 63.0000; 17.0000Map describing the Fennoscandian, Scandinavian and the Kola Peninsulas. Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
(Finnish: Fennoskandia; Swedish: Fennoskandien; Norwegian: Fennoskandia; Russian: Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region
Nordic region
comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.[1] It encompasses Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden,[2] as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
in Russia
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry
(category)Meteorology Weather
Wea

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Alps
The Alps
Alps
(/ælps/; French: Alpes [alp]; German: Alpen [ˈalpn̩]; Italian: Alpi [ˈalpi]; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe [ˈáːlpɛ]) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,[2][note 1] stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries
Alpine countries
(from west to east): France, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.[3] The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m (15,781 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps
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Belgium
Coordinates: 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000Kingdom of BelgiumKoninkrijk België  (Dutch) Royaume de Belgique  (French) Königreich Belgien  (German)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch) "L'union fait la force" (French) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German) "Unity makes Strength"Anthem: "La Brabançonne" "The Brabantian"Location of  Belgium  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Brussels 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350Official languages Dutch French GermanEthnic groups see DemographicsReligion (2015[1])60.7% Christianity 32.0% No religion 5.2% Islam 2.1% Other religionsDemonym BelgianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitu
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Off
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Southern Germany
Southern Germany
Southern Germany
(German: Süddeutschland) as a region has no exact boundary, but is generally taken to include the areas where Upper German dialects
German dialects
are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the historical stem duchies of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Swabia, or in a modern context to the states of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
within the Federal Republic of Germany (to the exclusion of the areas of the modern states of Austria
Austria
and Switzerland)
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Low Countries
The Low Countries, the Low Lands (Dutch: de Lage Landen, French: les Pays Bas), or historically also the Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Nederland, German: die Niederlande), is a coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe, forming the lower basin of the Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt rivers, divided in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
into numerous semi-independent principalities that consolidated in the countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, as well as today's French Flanders.[1][2] Historically, the regions without access to the sea have linked themselves politically and economically to those with access to form various unions of ports and hinterland,[3] stretching inland as far as parts of the German Rhineland. That is why nowadays some parts of the Low Countries
Low Countries
are actually hilly, like Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the south of Belgium
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Islands
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.[2] Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines, for example. An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands
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Northern Germany
Northern Germany
Germany
(German: Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany. Its exact area is not precisely or consistently defined but varies depending on whether one is taking a linguistic, geographic, socio-cultural or historic standpoint.Contents1 Language 2 Geography 3 Culture 4 Cuisine 5 History 6 Northern German States 7 Major cities 8 See also 9 ReferencesLanguage[edit]Uerdingen line: ich ("I") and ik isoglossNorthern Germany
Germany
generally refers to the Sprachraum area north of the Uerdingen and Benrath line
Benrath line
isoglosses, where Low German
Low German
dialects are spoken
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Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
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Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean. It is 55 km (34 mi) long (southwest-northeast) and 373 km2 (144 sq mi) in area, partly covered by glaciers (an area of 114.2 km (71.0 mi) around the Beerenberg volcano).[dubious – discuss] It has two parts: larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide isthmus. It lies 600 km (370 mi) northeast of Iceland (495 km (305 mi) NE of Kolbeinsey), 500 km (310 mi) east of central Greenland
Greenland
and 1,000 km (620 mi) west of the North Cape, Norway. The island is mountainous, the highest summit being the Beerenberg
Beerenberg
volcano in the north
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Mountainous
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level
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Mountains
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level
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