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North Rhine-Westphalia
NORTH RHINE-WESTPHALIA (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, pronounced ( listen ), commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany
Germany
, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf ; the most populous city is Cologne
Cologne
. Four of Germany's ten largest cities— Cologne
Cologne
, Düsseldorf , Dortmund
Dortmund
, and Essen
Essen
—are located within the state, as well as the largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
. North Rhine- Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine
North Rhine
and Westphalia , both formerly parts of Prussia
Prussia
, and the Free State of Lippe
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Otto I
OTTO I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as OTTO I THE GREAT (German : Otto I. der Große), was German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler
Henry I the Fowler
and Matilda . Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936. He continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and greatly expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies. This reduced the various dukes, who had previously been co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority
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Merovingians
The MEROVINGIANS (/ˌmɛroʊˈvɪndʒiən/ ) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks
Franks
for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin , beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia , Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania . The Merovingian dynasty
Merovingian dynasty
was founded by Childeric I (c. 457 – 481), the son of Merovech , leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481–511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Julius Caesar
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin
Latin
orthography: CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, Classical Latin: ; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC ), mostly known as JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin: IVLIVS CAESAR), was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin
Latin
prose . He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus , and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate , among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero
Cicero

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Eburones
The EBURONES (Greek : Ἐβούρωνες, Strabo
Strabo
), were a Celtic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul
Gaul
, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, and the German Rhineland
Rhineland
, in the period immediately before this region was conquered by Rome. Though living in Gaul, they were also described as being both Belgae
Belgae
, and Germani (for a discussion of these terms, see below ). The Eburones
Eburones
played a major role in Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's account of his "Gallic Wars" , as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes, i. e. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae. Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones
Eburones
was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars
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Tencteri
The TENCTERI or TENCHTERI or TENCTHERI (in Plutarch 's Greek, TENTERITē and possibly the same as the TENKEROI mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
if these were not the Tungri ) were an ancient tribe, who moved into the area on the right bank (the northern or eastern bank) of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC. They are known first from the surviving works of ancient authors such as Julius Caesar and Tacitus . In December 2015, archaeologists found remains of the Tencteri
Tencteri
in The Netherlands . While the Tencteri
Tencteri
and their neighbours were referred to by the Romans as Germanic rather than Gauls , their recorded names (including personal names) are most reasonably explained as Celtic : Tencteri
Tencteri
is generally translated as "the faithful"
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Usipetes
USIPETES or USIPII (in Plutarch 's Greek, OUSIPAI, and possibly the same as the OUISPOI of Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy
) were an ancient tribe who moved into the area on the right bank (the northern or eastern bank) of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC, putting them in contact with Gaul and the Roman empire
Roman empire
. They are known first from the surviving works of ancient authors such as Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Tacitus . They appear to have moved position several times before disappearing from the historical record
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Cugerni
The CUGERNI (or CUBERNI or GUBERNI) was Germanic tribal grouping with a particular territory within the Roman province
Roman province
of Germania
Germania
Inferior , which later became Germania Secunda
Germania Secunda
. More precisely they lived near modern Xanten , and the old Castra Vetera , on the Rhine
Rhine
. This part of Germania Secunda
Germania Secunda
was called the Civitas or Colonia Traiana (polity or colony of Trajan
Trajan
), and it was also inhabited by the Betasii . The Cugerni are amongst the Germanic tribes who crossed the Rhine from east to west, and were settled in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Similarly, to their south were the Ubii
Ubii
who also lived on the Rhine, around the modern city of Cologne
Cologne
in their Colonia Agrippenses
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Sugambri
The SICAMBRI, also known as the SUGAMBRI or SICAMBRIANS, were a Germanic people
Germanic people
who during Roman times lived on the right bank of the Rhine river
Rhine river
, in what is now Germany
Germany
, near the border with the Netherlands
Netherlands
. They were first reported by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
. Whether or not the Sicambri spoke a Germanic or Celtic language, or something else, is not certain, because they lived in the so-called Nordwestblock
Nordwestblock
zone where these two language families came into contact and were both influential. By the 3rd century the region, in which they and their neighbours had lived, had become part of the territory of the Franks
Franks
, which was a new name that possibly represented a new alliance of older tribes, possibly including the Sicambri
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Ubii
The UBII were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, who formed an alliance with them in 55 BC in order to launch attacks across the river. They were transported in 39 BC by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa to the left bank, apparently at their own request, as they feared the incursions of their neighbors, the Chatti . A colony for Roman veterans was founded in 50 AD under the patronage of Agrippa’s granddaughter, Agrippina the Younger , who had been born at Ara Ubiorum, the capital of the Ubii. The colony derived its title from the names of Agrippina and her husband, the emperor Claudius , and received the name Colonia Claudia Ara Augusta Agrippinensium, which is the origin of the city’s modern name, Cologne
Cologne

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UTC+2
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T10:11:53+02:00
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Upper Lorraine
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