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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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List Of Sovereign States
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (191 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (15 states, out of which there are 5 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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Oxfam
Oxfam
Oxfam
is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam
Oxfam
International.[1] Winnie Byanyima
Winnie Byanyima
has been the executive director of Oxfam
Oxfam
International since 2013.[2] Oxfam
Oxfam
International is based in England
England
at Oxfam
Oxfam
House, John Smith Drive, Oxford.[3] In the 21st century, Oxfam's governance has repeatedly come under criticism
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Currency
A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money
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List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per Capita
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values. This is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, converted at market exchange rates to current U.S. dollars, divided by the average population for the same year. The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population. Therefore, these figures should be used with caution
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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List Of Countries By Population Density
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer. The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories based upon the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. The list also includes but does not rank unrecognized but de facto independent countries. The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Figures used in this article are mainly based on the latest censuses and official estimates (or projections)
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Outlying Territories By Total Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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United Nations List Of Non-Self-Governing Territories
The United Nations
United Nations
list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process. Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter embodies a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" which declares that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations
United Nations
in control of non-self-governing territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the General Assembly has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control
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Countries
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics
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Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: степь, IPA: [stʲepʲ]) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld. The prairie of North America
North America
(especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-desert or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Fold Mountains
Fold mountains are mountains that form mainly by the effects of folding on layers within the upper part of the Earth's crust. Before either plate tectonic theory developed, or the internal architecture of thrust belts became well understood, the term was used for most mountain belts, such as the Himalayas. The term is still fairly common in physical geography literature but has otherwise generally fallen out of use except as described below. The forces responsible for formation of fold mountains are called orogenic movements. The term orogenic has derived from a Greek word meaning mountain building. These forces act at tangent to the surface of the earth and are primarily a result of plate tectonics.Contents1 Formation 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesFormation[edit] Fold mountains form when two tectonic plates move towards each other at a convergent plate boundary. Fold mountains form from sedimentary rocks that accumulate along the margins of continents
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Nile
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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Conquest (military)
Conquest is the act of military subjugation of an enemy by force of arms.[1][2] The Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
provides an example: it led to the subjugation of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
to Norman control and brought William the Conqueror to the English throne in 1066
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Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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