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Norse Mythology
Norse mythology
Norse mythology
is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism
Norse paganism
and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, and into the Scandinavian folklore
Scandinavian folklore
of the modern period
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Skald
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse: [ˈskald], later [ˈskɒ:ld]; Icelandic: [ˈskault], meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age
Viking Age
and Middle Ages. Skaldic poetry
Skaldic poetry
forms one of two main groupings of Old Norse
Old Norse
poetry, the other being the anonymous Eddic poetry. The most prevalent metre of skaldic poetry is dróttkvætt. The subject is usually historical and encomiastic, detailing the deeds of the skald's patron. There is no evidence that the skalds employed musical instruments, but some speculate that they may have accompanied their verses with the harp or lyre.[1] The technical demands of the skaldic form were equal to the complicated verse forms mastered by the Welsh bards and Gaelic (in both Scotland and Ireland) ollaves
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Younger Futhark
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries. The reduction, somewhat paradoxically, happened at the same time as phonetic changes led to a greater number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when Proto-Norse
Proto-Norse
evolved into Old Norse. Thus, the language included distinct sounds and minimal pairs that were written the same. The Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
is divided into long-branch (Danish) and short-twig (Swedish and Norwegian) runes; in the 10th century, it was further expanded by the "Hälsinge Runes" or staveless runes. The lifetime of the Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
corresponds roughly to the Viking Age
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Historical Linguistics
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.[1] Principal concerns of historical linguistics include:[2]to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and to determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics) to develop general theories about how and why language changes to describe the history of speech communities to study the history of words, i.e
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Ymir
In Norse mythology, Ymir, Aurgelmir, Brimir, or Bláinn is the ancestor of all jötnar. Ymir
Ymir
is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, in the Prose Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, and in the poetry of skalds. Taken together, several stanzas from four poems collected in the Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
refer to Ymir
Ymir
as a primeval being who was born from venom that dripped from the icy rivers Élivágar and lived in the grassless void of Ginnungagap. Ymir
Ymir
birthed a male and female from the pits of his arms, and his legs together begat a six-headed being
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Proto-Indo-European Religion
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures Bug–Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper–Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamnaya Mikhaylovka culture Novotitorovka culture CaucasusMaykop East AsiaAfanasievo Eastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni Northern EuropeCorded ware Baden Middle DnieperBronze Age Pontic SteppeChariot Yamnaya Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna Northern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta EuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulu
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Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
(also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism
Romanticism
was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical
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Völva
A vǫlva or völva ( Old Norse
Old Norse
and Icelandic, respectively; plural forms vǫlur and völvur, sometimes anglicized vala; also spákona or spækona) is a female shaman and seer in Norse religion
Norse religion
and a recurring motif in Norse mythology.The seeress speaks her prophecy in this illustration to a 19th-century Swedish translation of the Poetic Edda.Contents1 Names and etymology 2 Overview 3 Early accounts 4 Viking society4.1 Saga
Saga
sources 4.2 Archaeological record 4.3 Wands and weaving 4.4 Sexual rites and drugs 4.5 Other practices 4.6 Male practitioners5 Disappearance 6 In fiction6.1 Melville7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesNames and etymology[edit]Look up vǫlva in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.The vǫlur were referred to by many names
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Baldr
Baldr
Baldr
(also Balder, Baldur) is a Æsir
Æsir
god of light, joy, purity, and the summer sun in Norse mythology, and a son of the god Odin
Odin
and the goddess Frigg. He is the father of Forseti, and He has numerous brothers, such as Thor
Thor
and Váli. In the 12th century, Danish accounts by Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
and other Danish Latin chroniclers recorded a euhemerized account of his story. Compiled in Iceland
Iceland
in the 13th century, but based on much older Old Norse poetry, the Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
and the Prose Edda
Prose Edda
contain numerous references to the death of Baldr
Baldr
as both a great tragedy to the Æsir and a harbinger of Ragnarök
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Frigg
In Germanic mythology, Frigg
Frigg
(Old Norse), Frija (Old High German), Frea (Langobardic), and Frige
Frige
(Old English) is a goddess. In nearly all sources, she is described as the wife of the god Odin. In Old High German and Old Norse
Old Norse
sources, she is also connected with the goddess Fulla. The English weekday name Friday
Friday
(etymologically Old English "Frīge's day") bears her name. Frigg
Frigg
is described as a goddess associated with foreknowledge and wisdom in Norse mythology, the northernmost branch of Germanic mythology and most extensively attested
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Jötunn
In Norse mythology, a jötunn (plural jötnar) is a type of entity contrasted with gods and other figures, such as dwarfs and elves. The entities are themselves ambiguously defined, variously referred to by several other terms, including risi, thurs, and troll. Although the term giant is used to gloss the word jötunn and its apparent synonyms in some translations and academic texts, jötnar are not necessarily notably large and may be described as exceedingly beautiful or alarmingly grotesque. Some deities, such as Skaði
Skaði
and Gerðr, are themselves described as jötnar, and various well-attested deities, such as Odin, are descendants of the jötnar. Norse myth traces the origin of the jötnar to the proto-being Ymir, a result of growth of asexual reproduction from the entity's body. Ymir is later killed, his body dismembered to create the world, and the jötnar survive this event by way of sailing through a flood of Ymir’s blood
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Rök Runestone
Coordinates: 58°17′42″N 14°46′32″E / 58.29500°N 14.77556°E / 58.29500; 14.77556 Rök
Rök
Runestone Rundata ID Ög 136Country SwedenRegion ÖstergötlandCity/Village RökProduced 800Runemaster VarinnText – NativeOld Norse: See article.Text – EnglishSee article.Other resourcesRunestones – Runic alphabet Runology
Runology
Runestone
Runestone
stylesThe Rök
Rök
Runestone
Runestone
(Swedish: Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous runestones, featuring the longest known runic inscription in stone. It can now be seen beside the church in Rök
Rök
(between Mjölby and Ödeshög, close to the E4 and Lake Vättern
Vättern
and Tåkern), Östergötland, Sweden
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Rundata
The Scandinavian Runic-text Data Base (Swedish: Samnordisk runtextdatabas) is a project involving the creation and maintenance of a database of runic inscriptions. The project's goal is to comprehensively catalog runestones in a machine-readable way for future research
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Freyr
Freyr
Freyr
(Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology. Freyr
Freyr
is said to "bestow peace and pleasure on mortals." Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was especially associated with Sweden
Sweden
and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house. In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
and the Prose Edda, Freyr
Freyr
is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja. The gods gave him Álfheimr, the realm of the Elves, as a teething present
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Rök
Rök
Rök
is a parish located in Östergötland, Sweden. It is mostly known for being the location where the Rök Runestone
Rök Runestone
is kept. Coordinates: 58°17′38″N 14°47′11″E / 58.29389°N 14.78639°E / 58.29389; 14.78639This article about a location in Östergötland
Östergötland
County, Sweden
Sweden
is a stub
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Runic Inscription
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets. The body of runic inscriptions falls into the three categories of Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
(some 350 items, dating to between the 2nd and 8th centuries AD), Anglo-Frisian Futhorc
Anglo-Frisian Futhorc
(some 100 items, 5th to 11th centuries) and Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
(close to 6,000 items, 8th to 12th centuries).[1][2] The total 350 known inscriptions in the Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
script[3] fall into two main geographical categories, North Germanic (Scandinavian, c. 267 items) and Continental or South Germanic ("German" and Gothic, c
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