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Nonbuilding Structure
A NONBUILDING STRUCTURE, also referred to simply as a STRUCTURE, refers to any body or system of connected parts used to support a load that was not designed for continuous human occupancy . The term is used by architects , structural engineers , and mechanical engineers to distinctly identify built structures that are not buildings
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Electricity Grid
An ELECTRICAL GRID is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers . Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of economies of scale . The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network. The bulk power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network)
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Dock (maritime)
A DOCK (from Dutch dok) is the area of water between or next to one or a group of human-made structures that are involved in the handling of boats or ships (usually on or near a shore ) or such structures themselves. The exact meaning varies among different variants of the English language . "Dock" may also refer to a dockyard (also known as a shipyard) where the loading, unloading, building, or repairing of ships occurs. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 British English
British English
* 3 American English
American English
* 3.1 In parts of both the US and Canada
Canada
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links HISTORYThe earliest known docks were those discovered in Wadi al-Jarf , an ancient Egyptian harbor dating from 2500 BCE located on the Red Sea coast. Archaeologists also discovered anchors and storage jars near the site
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Ferry Slip
A FERRY SLIP is a specialized docking facility that receives a ferryboat or train ferry . A similar structure called a BARGE SLIP receives a barge or car float that is used to carry wheeled vehicles across a body of water. Often a ferry intended for motor vehicle transport will carry its own adjustable ramp - when elevated it acts as a wave guard and is lowered to a horizontal position at the terminus to meet a permanent road segment that extends under water. In other cases, the ramp is installed at the ferry slip and is called a linkspan or APRON. Such a ramp is adjustable to accommodate varying water heights and ferry loadings and to move it out of the way during approach and exit. If railcars are carried by the ferry the apron will have tracks for them. In some parts of the world, the structures are also known as LINKSPANS and TRANSFER BRIDGES. Similar structures are used to receive barges, particularly if the barge is for the carriage of railcars
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Flume
A FLUME is a human-made channel for water in the form of an open declined gravity chute whose walls are raised above the surrounding terrain, in contrast to a trench or ditch . Flumes are not to be confused with aqueducts , which are built to transport water, rather than transporting materials using flowing water as a flume does. Flumes route water from a diversion dam or weir to a desired materiel collection location. Many flumes took the form of wooden troughs elevated on trestles , often following the natural contours of the land. Originating as a part of a mill race , they were later used in the transportation of logs in the logging industry, known as a log flume . They were also extensively used in hydraulic mining and working placer deposits for gold , tin and other heavy minerals
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Fortification
FORTIFICATIONS are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare , and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified
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Dam
A DAM is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation , human consumption , industrial use , aquaculture , and navigability . Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes ) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English
Middle English
, and before that, from Middle Dutch , as seen in the names of many old cities. The first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, Obdam , that is already mentioned in 1120
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Crane (machine)
A CRANE is a type of machine , generally equipped with a hoist rope , wire ropes or chains , and sheaves , that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. The device uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials, and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment . The first known construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men or beasts of burden, such as donkeys. These cranes were used for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed, employing the use of human treadwheels , permitting the lifting of heavier weights
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Flue-gas Stack
A FLUE-GAS STACK is a type of chimney , a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other fuel is combusted in an industrial furnace, a power plant\'s steam-generating boiler, or other large combustion device. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulate matter , carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides . The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 metres (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater area and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policy and environmental regulation
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Coke Oven
COKE is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal . It is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulphur bituminous coal . Cokes made from coal are grey, hard, and porous . While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is synthetic. The form known as petroleum coke , or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes. Coke is used in preparation of producer gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N2). Producer gas is produced by passing air over red-hot coke. Coke is also used to manufacture water gas
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Communications Tower
RADIO MASTS AND TOWERS are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting , including television . There are two main types: guyed and self-supporting structures. They are among the tallest man-made structures. Masts are often named after the broadcasting organizations that originally built them or currently use them. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower, the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna
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Covered Bridge
A COVERED BRIDGE is a timber-truss bridge with a roof and siding which, in most covered bridges, create an almost complete enclosure. The purpose of the covering is to protect the wooden structural members from the weather. Uncovered wooden bridges have a lifespan of only 10 to 15 years because of the effects of rain and sun. Bridges having covers for reasons other than protecting wood trusses, such as for protecting pedestrians and keeping horses from shying away from water, are also sometimes called covered bridges
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Fractionating Column
A FRACTIONATING COLUMN is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities . Fractionating columns are used in small scale laboratory distillations as well as for large-scale industrial distillations. CONTENTS * 1 Laboratory fractionating columns * 2 Industrial fractionating columns * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LABORATORY FRACTIONATING COLUMNS Figure 1: Fractional distillation apparatus using a Liebig condenser . A laboratory fractionating column is a piece of glassware used to separate vaporized mixtures of liquid compounds with close volatility. It can also be called a fractional column. Most commonly used is either a Vigreux column or a straight column packed with glass beads or metal pieces such as Raschig rings
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Gate
A GATE or GATEWAY is a point of entry to a space which is enclosed by walls . Gates may prevent or control the entry or exit of individuals, or they may be merely decorative. Other terms for gate include YETT and PORT. The word derives from the old Norse "gata", meaning road or path, and originally referred to the gap in the wall or fence, rather than the barrier which closed it. The moving part or parts of a gateway may be called "doors", but used for the whole point of entry door usually refers to the entry to a building, or an internal opening between different rooms. A gate may have a latch to keep it from swinging and a lock for security. Larger gates can be used for a whole building, such as a castle or fortified town , or the actual doors that block entry through the gatehouse . Today, many gate doors are opened by an automated gate operator
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Monument
A MONUMENT is a type of structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or as an example of historic architecture. The term 'monument' is often applied to buildings or structures that are considered examples of important architectural and/or cultural heritage. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Creation and functions * 3 Protection and preservation * 4 Types * 4.1 Examples of notable monuments * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe origin of the word "monument" comes from the Latin moneo, monere, which means 'to remind', 'to advise' or 'to warn', suggesting a monument allows us to see the past thus helping us visualize what is to come in the future
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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