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Non-metropolitan District
NON-METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS, or colloquially "SHIRE DISTRICTS", are a type of local government district in England
England
. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties (colloquially shire counties) in a two-tier arrangement. In the 1990s, several non-metropolitan counties were created that are unitary authorities and also have non-metropolitan district status. A third category is the districts of Berkshire, which are non-metropolitan districts that are unitary authorities, but without non-metropolitan county status
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Police
A POLICE force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law , protect property, and limit civil disorder . Their powers include the legitimized use of force . The term is most commonly associated with police services of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police
Police
forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing
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Trading Standards
In the United Kingdom, TRADING STANDARDS are the local authority departments formerly known as Weights and Measures . Frequently, the Trading Standards enforcement functions of a local authority are performed by a small part of a larger department which enforces a wide range of other legislation: environmental health, health and safety, licensing and so on. These departments investigate commercial organisations that trade outside the law or in unethical ways. They attempt to remedy breaches by advice or by formal enforcement action. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Function * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThey were originally labelled as Weights and Measures Departments because their primary function was to maintain the integrity of commercial weighing and measuring by routine testing of equipment and goods. Other legislation was allocated to them as time went on
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Waste Disposal
WASTE MANAGEMENT or WASTE DISPOSAL is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling. The term normally relates to all kinds of waste, whether generated during the extraction of raw materials , the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, or other human activities, including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and social (health care, household hazardous waste, sewage sludge). Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on health , the environment or aesthetics
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Public Transport
PUBLIC TRANSPORT (also known as PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, PUBLIC TRANSIT, or MASS TRANSIT) is a shared passenger -transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab , carpooling , hired buses, and transportation network companies , which are not shared by the general public without private arrangement. Public transport
Public transport
modes include city buses , trolleybuses , trams (or light rail ) and passenger trains , rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries . Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines , coaches , and intercity rail . High-speed rail
High-speed rail
networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway (e.g.: "every 5 minutes" as opposed to being scheduled for any specific time of the day)
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Library
A LIBRARY is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books , periodicals , newspapers , manuscripts , films , maps , prints , documents , microform , CDs , cassettes , videotapes , DVDs , Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Discs , e-books , audiobooks , databases , and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer , some dating back to 2600 BC
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Tourism
TOURISM is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism
Tourism
Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". Tourism
Tourism
can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments . Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance
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Local Education Authority
LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES (LEAS) are the local councils in England and Wales
Wales
that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. The term is used to identify which council (district or county) is locally responsible for education in a system with several layers of local government. Local education authorities are not usually ad hoc or standalone authorities, although the former Inner London Education Authority was one example of this. CONTENTS* 1 Responsible local authority * 1.1 England
England
* 1.2 Wales
Wales
* 2 Functions * 3 History * 3.1 Creation * 3.2 Reform * 4 List of local authorities responsible for education * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links RESPONSIBLE LOCAL AUTHORITYENGLAND England
England
has several tiers of local government and the relevant local authority varies
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Social Services
SOCIAL SERVICES are a range of public services provided by government, private, and non-profit organizations. These public services aim to create more effective organizations, build stronger communities, and promote equality and opportunity. Social services include the benefits and facilities such as education, food subsidies, health care, police, fire service, job training and subsidized housing, adoption, community management, policy research, and lobbying
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Mayors In England
In England
England
, the offices of mayor and lord mayor have long been ceremonial posts, with few or no duties attached to them. A mayor's term of office denotes the municipal year . The most famous example is that of the Lord Mayor of the City
City
of London . Traditionally mayors and provosts have been elected by town , borough and city councils. Since 2000, several districts now have directly elected mayors with extensive powers. See borough status in the United Kingdom for a list of English districts to have a borough charter (and therefore a mayor). The role of the chairman of a district council is exactly the same as the mayor of a borough council, and they have the same status as first citizen, after the Sovereign, in their district, but they are not addressed as mayor
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Royal Charter
A ROYAL CHARTER is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent , granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate . They were, and are still, used to establish significant organisations such as cities (with municipal charters ) or universities and learned societies . Charters should be distinguished from warrants and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum . The British monarchy has issued over 980 royal charters . Of these about 750 remain in existence. The earliest was to the town of Tain
Tain
in 1066, making it the oldest Royal Burgh in Scotland, followed by the University of Cambridge in 1231. Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown , a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors , in 2014
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic : Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707
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Local Government Areas Of Scotland 1973 To 1996
The LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF SCOTLAND were redefined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and redefined again by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994 . The 1973 Act created a system of nine two-tier regions and three islands areas , and this system completely replaced local government counties and burghs in 1975. The new regions were generally very different from the counties which had been in use since the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889
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Subdivisions Of Scotland
For local government purposes, Scotland
Scotland
is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas", which are all governed by single-tier authorities designated as "councils". They have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 of being known (but not re-designated) as a "comhairle" when opting for a Gaelic name; only Comhairle Nan Eilean Siar (Council of the Western Isles) has chosen this option, whereas the Highland Council (Comhairle na Gaidhealtachd) has adopted its Gaelic form alongside its English equivalent informally. The council areas have been in existence since 1 April 1996, under the provisions of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994
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Districts Of Wales
In 1974, Wales
Wales
was re-divided for local government purposes into thirty-seven DISTRICTS. Districts were the second tier of local government introduced by the Local Government Act 1972 , being subdivisions of the eight counties introduced at the same time. This system of two-tier local government was abolished in 1996 and replaced with the current system of unitary principal areas . Each district was administered by an elected district council. The council was entitled to petition for a charter granting borough status, whereupon the district became a borough and the district council a borough council headed by a mayor . In addition, a district could be granted Letters Patent granting city status. For the list of districts before 1974, see List of urban and rural districts in Wales
Wales

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Wales
WALES (/ˈweɪlz/ ( listen ); Welsh : Cymru ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the island of Great Britain . It is bordered by England
England
to the east , the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales
Wales
has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate
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