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Non-metropolitan District
Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially "shire districts", are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties (colloquially shire counties) in a two-tier arrangement. In the 1990s, several non-metropolitan counties were created that are unitary authorities and also have non-metropolitan district status
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Fire Service
A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English), also known as a fire protection district, fire authority, or simply fire and rescue service is a public or private organization that provides predominantly emergency fire suppression and rescue services for a specific geographic area, which is typically a municipality, county, state, or special district. In the United States a fire brigade is the private firefighting organization of a company or enterprise, operated under rules from OSHA. A fire department usually contains one or more fire stations within its boundaries, and may be staffed by career firefighters, volunteer firefighters, or a combination thereof (referred to as a combination department).[1] A fire department may also provide fire protection or fire prevention services, whereby firefighters visit homes and give fire safety advice and fit smoke alarms for members of the public
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Crematoria
Cremation
Cremation
is the combustion, vaporization and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.[1] Cremation
Cremation
may serve as a funeral or post-funeral rite as an alternative to the interment of an intact dead body in a coffin or casket. Cremated remains (aka "cremains" or simply, "ashes"),[2][3] which do not constitute a health risk, may be buried or interred in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be retained by relatives and dispersed in various ways. Cremation
Cremation
is an alternative in place of burial or other forms of disposal in funeral practices. Some families prefer to have the deceased present at the funeral with cremation to follow; others prefer that the cremation occur prior to the funeral or memorial service. In many countries, cremation is usually done in a crematorium
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Letters Patent
Letters patent
Letters patent
(always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent (referred to as a utility patent or design patent in United States
United States
patent law) granting exclusive rights in an invention (or a design in the case of a design patent)
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Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organisations such as cities (with municipal charters) or universities and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum. The British monarchy has issued over 980 royal charters.[1] Of these about 750 remain in existence. The earliest was to the town of Tain
Tain
in 1066, making it the oldest Royal Burgh in Scotland, followed by the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
in 1231
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Mayors In England
In England, the offices of mayor and lord mayor have long been ceremonial posts, with few or no duties attached to them. In recent years they have doubled as more influential political roles while retaining the ceremonial functions. A mayor's term of office denotes the municipal year. The most famous example is that of the Lord Mayor of the City
City
of London. Traditionally mayors and provosts have been elected by town, borough and city councils. Since 2000, several districts now have directly elected mayors with extensive powers. See borough status in the United Kingdom for a list of English districts to have a borough charter (and therefore a mayor)
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London Government Act 1963
The London Government Act 1963
London Government Act 1963
(c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London
Greater London
and created a new local government structure for the capital. The Act significantly reduced the number of local government districts in the area, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger areas and populations. The upper tier of local government was reformed to cover the whole of the Greater London
Greater London
area and with a more strategic role; and the split of functions between upper and lower tiers was recast. The Act classified the boroughs into inner and outer London groups. The City of London
City of London
and its corporation were essentially unreformed by the legislation
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Waste Disposal
Waste
Waste
management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.[1] This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling. Waste
Waste
can take any form that is solid, liquid, or gas and each have different methods of disposal and management
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Trading Standards
In the United Kingdom, Trading Standards the local authority departments, formerly known as Weights and Measures, that consumer protection legislation.[1] Sometimes, the Trading Standards enforcement functions of a local authority are performed by part of a larger department which enforces a wide range of other legislation: environmental health, health and safety, licensing and so on. These departments investigate commercial organisations that trade outside the law or in unethical ways. They attempt to remedy breaches by advice or by formal enforcement action.Contents1 History 2 Function 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] They were originally labelled as Weights and Measures Departments because their primary function was to maintain the integrity of commercial weighing and measuring by routine testing of equipment and goods
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Police
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.[1] Their powers include power of arrest and the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police
Police
forces are often defined as being separate from military or other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing
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Public Transport
Public transport
Public transport
(also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.[1][2][3] Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams (or light rail) and passenger trains, rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries
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Library
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.[1] It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.[2] A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC
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Social Services
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations
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Local Education Authority
Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales
Wales
that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. The term is used to identify which council (district or county) is locally responsible for education in a system with several layers of local government. Local education authorities are not usually ad hoc or standalone authorities, although the former Inner London Education Authority was one example of this.Contents1 Responsible local authority1.1 England 1.2 Wales2 Functions 3 History3.1 Creation 3.2 Reform4 List of local authorities responsible for education 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksResponsible local authority[edit] England[edit] England
England
has several tiers of local government and the relevant local authority varies
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Tourism
Tourism
Tourism
is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.[1] Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism
Tourism
Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".[2] Tourism
Tourism
can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments
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