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Non-newtonian Fluid
A non- Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's Law of Viscosity. Most commonly, the viscosity (the gradual deformation by shear or tensile stresses) of non-Newtonian fluids is dependent on shear rate or shear rate history. Some non-Newtonian fluids with shear-independent viscosity, however, still exhibit normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian behavior. Many salt solutions and molten polymers are non-Newtonian fluids, as are many commonly found substances such as ketchup, custard, toothpaste, starch suspensions, maizena, honey,[1] paint, blood, and shampoo. In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is linear, passing through the origin, the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity. In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is different
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Colloid
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;[1] the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension)
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Lubricant
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity. In addition to industrial applications, lubricants are used for many other purposes. Other uses include cooking (oils and fats in use in frying pans, in baking to prevent food sticking), bioapplications on humans (e.g. lubricants for artificial joints), ultrasound examination, medical examination.Contents1 History 2 Properties2.1 Formulation 2.2 Additives3 Types of lubricants3.1 Mineral oil 3.2 Synthetic oils 3.3 Solid lubricants 3.4 Aqueous lubrication 3.5 Biolubricants4 Functions of lubricants4.1 Lubricant vs
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Tensor
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors. Elementary examples of such relations include the dot product, the cross product, and linear maps. Geometric vectors, often used in physics and engineering applications, and scalars themselves are also tensors.[1] A more sophisticated example is the Cauchy stress tensor T, which takes a direction v as input and produces the stress T(v) on the surface normal to this vector for output, thus expressing a relationship between these two vectors, shown in the figure (right). Given a reference basis of vectors, a tensor can be represented as an organized multidimensional array of numerical values. The order (also degree or rank) of a tensor is the dimensionality of the array needed to represent it, or equivalently, the number of indices needed to label a component of that array
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Constitutive Equations
In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces. They are combined with other equations governing physical laws to solve physical problems; for example in fluid mechanics the flow of a fluid in a pipe, in solid state physics the response of a crystal to an electric field, or in structural analysis, the connection between applied stresses or forces to strains or deformations. Some constitutive equations are simply phenomenological; others are derived from first principles. A common approximate constitutive equation frequently is expressed as a simple proportionality using a parameter taken to be a property of the material, such as electrical conductivity or a spring constant
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Montmorillonite
Montmorillonite
Montmorillonite
is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon
Montmorillon
in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite
Montmorillonite
is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane
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Bentonite
Bentonite
Bentonite
is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. It was named by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898 after the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Benton Shale near Rock River, Wyoming.[1][2] The different types of bentonite are each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminium (Al). Experts debate a number of nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite
Bentonite
usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, has been used to describe clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite
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Clay
Clay
Clay
is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO4), metal oxides (Al2O3 , MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing.[1][2][3] Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy
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Castor Wax
Castor wax, also called hydrogenated castor oil, is a hard, brittle, vegetable wax. It is produced by the hydrogenation (chemical combination with hydrogen) of pure castor oil, in the presence of a nickel catalyst. It is odorless and insoluble in water. Uses[edit] Castor wax is used in polishes, cosmetics, electrical capacitors, carbon paper, lubrication and coatings and greases where resistance to moisture, oils and petrochemical products is required. Castor wax is also useful in polyurethane coating formulation, as it contains three secondary hydroxyl group. These coating compositions are useful as a top coat varnish for leather, wood and rubber
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Whipped Cream
Whipped cream
Whipped cream
is cream that is whipped by a whisk or mixer until it is light and fluffy. Whipped cream
Whipped cream
is often sweetened and sometimes flavored with vanilla. Whipped cream
Whipped cream
is also called Chantilly cream or crème chantilly (pronounced [kʁɛm ʃɑ̃tiji]).Contents1 Food chemistry 2 Methods of whipping 3 History 4 Crème Chantilly 5 Imitation whipped cream 6 Uses 7 See also 8 ReferencesFood chemistry[edit] Whipped cream
Whipped cream
is a culinary colloid produced when heavy cream is subjected to mechanical aeration
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Xanthan Gum
Xanthan gum
Xanthan gum
(/ˈzænθən/) is a polysaccharide with a wide variety of uses, including as a common food additive
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Pectin
Pectin
Pectin
(from Ancient Greek: πηκτικός pēktikós, "congealed, curdled"[1]) is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot.[2][3] It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies
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Gelatin
Gelatin
Gelatin
or gelatine (from Latin: gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceutical drugs, vitamin capsules, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called "gelatinous." Gelatin
Gelatin
is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis results in the reduction of protein fibrils into smaller peptides, which will have broad molecular weight ranges associated with physical and chemical methods of denaturation, based on the process of hydrolysis
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Printer Ink
An ink cartridge or inkjet cartridge is a component of an inkjet printer that contains the ink that is deposited onto paper during printing. Each ink cartridge contains one or more ink reservoirs; certain producers also add electronic contacts and a chip that communicates with the printer.Contents1 Design1.1 Thermal 1.2 Piezoelectric2 Variants 3 Pricing 4 Refills and third party replacements4.1 Environmental impact4.1.1 Facts 4.1.2 New laws5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDesign[edit] Main article: Inkjet printer Thermal[edit] Most consumer inkjet printers, such as those made by Canon, HP, and Lexmark
Lexmark
(but not Epson) use a thermal inkjet; inside each partition of the ink reservoir is a heating element with a tiny metal plate or resistor
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Gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum
is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.[3] It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer, and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk and wallboard. A massive fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Nottingham alabasters of Medieval England. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines hardness value 2 as gypsum
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Iron Oxide
Iron
Iron
oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. All together, there are sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides.[1] Iron
Iron
oxides and oxide-hydroxides are widespread in nature, play an important role in many geological and biological processes, and are widely used by humans, e.g., as iron ores, pigments, catalysts, in thermite (see the diagram) and hemoglobin. Common rust is a form of iron(III) oxide. Iron
Iron
oxides are widely used as inexpensive, durable pigments in paints, coatings and colored concretes. Colors commonly available are in the "earthy" end of the yellow/orange/red/brown/black range
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