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Non Liquet
In law, a non liquet is a situation where there is no applicable law. Non liquet translates into English from Latin
Latin
as "it is not clear".[1] According to Cicero, the term was applied during the Roman Republic to a verdict of "not proven" where the guilt or innocence of the accused was "not clear".[2] Lacuna is a related word which means "gap, void, defect, want, or loss" and is used to indicate a gap in the law.[3] Lacunae are distinct from loopholes, in which a law exists but which can be circumvented legally due to an unforeseen or unintended inadequacy in the said law. A lacuna, on the other hand, is a situation in which a law or provision is lacking in the first place. That is to say, a court comes to the conclusion that the situation engaged in a case has no answer from the governing system of law
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Law
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero[n 1] (/ˈsɪsəroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈtʊl.lɪ.ʊs ˈkɪ.kɛ.roː]; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[2][3] His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in
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Loophole
A loophole is an ambiguity or inadequacy in a system, such as a law or security, which can be used to circumvent or otherwise avoid the purpose, implied or explicitly stated, of the system. Originally, the word means an arrowslit, a narrow vertical window in a wall through which an archer could shoot. Loopholes are distinct from lacunae, although the two terms are often used interchangeably.[citation needed] In a loophole, a law addressing a certain issue exists, but can be legally circumvented due to a technical defect in the law
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International Law
International law
International law
is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.[1][2] It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations.[3] International law
International law
differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily applicable to countries rather than to private citizens. National law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
or the International Criminal Court. Treaties
Treaties
such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. Much of international law is consent-based governance
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International Court Of Justice
The International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court)[1] is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN). It settles legal disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. It comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council
Security Council
for nine-year terms
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Barcelona Traction
Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company (BTLP) (locally known as La canadiense in Spanish and La canadenca in Catalan, "The Canadian") was a Canadian utility company that operated light and power utilities in Catalonia, Spain. It was incorporated on September 12, 1911 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada by Frederick Stark Pearson. The company was developed by Belgian-American engineer Dannie Heineman. It operated in Spain but was owned mostly by the Belgian holding companies SOFINA and SIDRO and became the subject of the important International Court of Justice case, Belgium v. Spain (1970).Contents1 1919 strike 2 Juan March2.1 Lawsuit3 Acquisitions 4 See also 5 References1919 strike[edit] Main article: La Canadiense strike In 1919, a conflict between a BTLP subsidiary, Riegos y fuerzas del Ebro, and eight office workers escalated into a 44-days general strike called by the Anarcho-Syndicalist National Confederation of Labour halting Barcelona and 70% of the Catalan industry
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Estoppel
Estoppel
Estoppel
is a judicial device in common law legal systems whereby a court may prevent, or "estop" (a person who performs this is estopped) a person from making assertions or from going back on his word.[1][2][3] Estoppel
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Ex Aequo Et Bono
Ex aequo et bono (Latin for "according to the right and good" or "from equity and conscience") is a Latin phrase that is used as a legal term of art
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Martin Nourse
Sir Martin Charles Nourse (3 April 1932 – 28 November 2017)[1] was a Lord Justice of Appeal
Lord Justice of Appeal
of England and Wales, who served as Vice-President of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales from 2003 until his retirement from the bench in 2006. Education and military service[edit] Nourse attended Winchester College
Winchester College
(1945–1950) and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. He served as a second lieutenant in the Rifle Brigade from 1951 to 1952, and subsequently in the Territorial Army in the London Rifle Brigade Rangers. Legal career[edit] In 1956, Nourse was called to the bar (Lincoln's Inn), was made a bencher in 1978, and served as treasurer in 2001. He was a member of the General Council of the Bar from 1964 to 1968
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Public International Law
International law
International law
is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.[1][2] It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations.[3] International law
International law
differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily applicable to countries rather than to private citizens. National law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
or the International Criminal Court. Treaties
Treaties
such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. Much of international law is consent-based governance
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Non Liquet
In law, a non liquet is a situation where there is no applicable law. Non liquet translates into English from Latin
Latin
as "it is not clear".[1] According to Cicero, the term was applied during the Roman Republic to a verdict of "not proven" where the guilt or innocence of the accused was "not clear".[2] Lacuna is a related word which means "gap, void, defect, want, or loss" and is used to indicate a gap in the law.[3] Lacunae are distinct from loopholes, in which a law exists but which can be circumvented legally due to an unforeseen or unintended inadequacy in the said law. A lacuna, on the other hand, is a situation in which a law or provision is lacking in the first place. That is to say, a court comes to the conclusion that the situation engaged in a case has no answer from the governing system of law
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